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Optimization of Production Parameters for Andrographolide-Loaded Nanoemulsion Preparation by Microfluidization and Evaluations of Its Bioactivities in Skin Cancer Cells and UVB Radiation-Exposed Skin

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Thammasat University Research Unit in Drug, Health Product Development and Application (DHP-DA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
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Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari 93132, Indonesia
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Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Praboromarajchanok Institute, Abhaibhubejhr College of Thai Traditional Medicine Prachinburi, Prachinburi 25230, Thailand
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Centre for Drug Delivery Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
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National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand Science Park, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dimitrios A. Lamprou and Sudip K. Das
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(8), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081290
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 8 August 2021 / Accepted: 9 August 2021 / Published: 18 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics as a Tool for Drug Delivery)
Andrographolide (AG) is an active compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Family Acanthaceae). Although it possesses beneficial bioactivities to the skin, there is insufficient information of its applications for treatment of skin disorders due to low water solubility leading to complications in product development. To overcome the problem, an AG-loaded nanoemulsion (AG-NE) was formulated and prepared using a microfluidization technique. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pressure and the number of homogenization cycles (factors) on droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of AG-NE (responses) and to determine the effect of AG-NE on skin cancer cells and UVB irradiation-induced skin disorders in rats. Relationships between factors versus responses obtained from the face-centered central composite design were described by quadratic models. The optimum value of parameters for the production of optimized AG-NE (Op-AG-NE) were 20,000 psi of pressure and 5 homogenization cycles. Op-AG-NE showed promising cytotoxicity effects on the human malignant melanoma- (A375 cells) and non-melanoma cells (A-431 cells) via apoptosis induction with a high selectivity index and also inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity in the A375 cells. Op-AG-NE could reduce melanin index and healed UVB irradiation exposed skin. Op-AG-NE thus had potential for treatment of skin cancers and skin disorders from exposure to UVB radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: andrographolide; nanoemulsion; microfluidization; design of experiment; central composite design; optimization; transdermal drug delivery; skin cancer; tyrosinase inhibitor; UVB irradiation andrographolide; nanoemulsion; microfluidization; design of experiment; central composite design; optimization; transdermal drug delivery; skin cancer; tyrosinase inhibitor; UVB irradiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asasutjarit, R.; Sooksai, N.; Fristiohady, A.; Lairungruang, K.; Ng, S.-F.; Fuongfuchat, A. Optimization of Production Parameters for Andrographolide-Loaded Nanoemulsion Preparation by Microfluidization and Evaluations of Its Bioactivities in Skin Cancer Cells and UVB Radiation-Exposed Skin. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1290. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081290

AMA Style

Asasutjarit R, Sooksai N, Fristiohady A, Lairungruang K, Ng S-F, Fuongfuchat A. Optimization of Production Parameters for Andrographolide-Loaded Nanoemulsion Preparation by Microfluidization and Evaluations of Its Bioactivities in Skin Cancer Cells and UVB Radiation-Exposed Skin. Pharmaceutics. 2021; 13(8):1290. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asasutjarit, Rathapon, Nawarat Sooksai, Adryan Fristiohady, Kriyapa Lairungruang, Shiow-Fern Ng, and Asira Fuongfuchat. 2021. "Optimization of Production Parameters for Andrographolide-Loaded Nanoemulsion Preparation by Microfluidization and Evaluations of Its Bioactivities in Skin Cancer Cells and UVB Radiation-Exposed Skin" Pharmaceutics 13, no. 8: 1290. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081290

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