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Food Effects on Oral Drug Absorption: Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling as a Predictive Tool
Article

Bottom-Up Physiologically Based Oral Absorption Modeling of Free Weak Base Drugs

1
Minase Research Institute, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 3-1-1 Sakurai, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-8585, Japan
2
Laboratory for Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control, Pharmaceuticals Production & Technology Center, Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, 632-1 Mifuku, Izunokuni, Shizuoka 410-2321, Japan
3
Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Japan Tobacco Inc., 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1125, Japan
4
Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
5
Molecular Pharmaceutics Lab., College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(9), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090844
Received: 29 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanistic In Vitro and In Silico Modeling of Oral Drug Absorption)
In this study, we systematically evaluated “bottom-up” physiologically based oral absorption modeling, focusing on free weak base drugs. The gastrointestinal unified theoretical framework (the GUT framework) was employed as a simple and transparent model. The oral absorption of poorly soluble free weak base drugs is affected by gastric pH. Alternation of bulk and solid surface pH by dissolving drug substances was considered in the model. Simple physicochemical properties such as pKa, the intrinsic solubility, and the bile micelle partition coefficient were used as input parameters. The fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa) in vivo was obtained by reanalyzing the pharmacokinetic data in the literature (15 drugs, a total of 85 Fa data). The AUC ratio with/without a gastric acid-reducing agent (AUCr) was collected from the literature (22 data). When gastric dissolution was neglected, Fa was underestimated (absolute average fold error (AAFE) = 1.85, average fold error (AFE) = 0.64). By considering gastric dissolution, predictability was improved (AAFE = 1.40, AFE = 1.04). AUCr was also appropriately predicted (AAFE = 1.54, AFE = 1.04). The Fa values of several drugs were slightly overestimated (less than 1.7-fold), probably due to neglecting particle growth in the small intestine. This modeling strategy will be of great importance for drug discovery and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: free base; gastric dissolution; permeability; solubility; oral absorption; modeling free base; gastric dissolution; permeability; solubility; oral absorption; modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Matsumura, N.; Ono, A.; Akiyama, Y.; Fujita, T.; Sugano, K. Bottom-Up Physiologically Based Oral Absorption Modeling of Free Weak Base Drugs. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090844

AMA Style

Matsumura N, Ono A, Akiyama Y, Fujita T, Sugano K. Bottom-Up Physiologically Based Oral Absorption Modeling of Free Weak Base Drugs. Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12(9):844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matsumura, Naoya; Ono, Asami; Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Takuya; Sugano, Kiyohiko. 2020. "Bottom-Up Physiologically Based Oral Absorption Modeling of Free Weak Base Drugs" Pharmaceutics 12, no. 9: 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090844

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