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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Drug Delivery to the Posterior Segment of the Eye: Biopharmaceutic and Pharmacokinetic Considerations

1
Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Campus vida, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Clinical Neurosciences Group, University Clinical Hospital, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
Clinical Pharmacology Group, University Clinical Hospital, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Paraquasil Group, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5
Molecular Imaging Group. University Clinical Hospital, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12030269
Received: 2 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Drug Delivery)
The treatment of the posterior-segment ocular diseases, such as age-related eye diseases (AMD) or diabetic retinopathy (DR), present a challenge for ophthalmologists due to the complex anatomy and physiology of the eye. This specialized organ is composed of various static and dynamic barriers that restrict drug delivery into the target site of action. Despite numerous efforts, effective intraocular drug delivery remains unresolved and, therefore, it is highly desirable to improve the current treatments of diseases affecting the posterior cavity. This review article gives an overview of pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutics aspects for the most commonly-used ocular administration routes (intravitreal, topical, systemic, and periocular), including information of the absorption, distribution, and elimination, as well as the benefits and limitations of each one. This article also encompasses different conventional and novel drug delivery systems designed and developed to improve drug pharmacokinetics intended for the posterior ocular segment treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocular pharmacokinetics; ocular drug delivery systems; ocular routes of drug administration; intravitreal administration; topical administration ocular pharmacokinetics; ocular drug delivery systems; ocular routes of drug administration; intravitreal administration; topical administration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Varela-Fernández, R.; Díaz-Tomé, V.; Luaces-Rodríguez, A.; Conde-Penedo, A.; García-Otero, X.; Luzardo-Álvarez, A.; Fernández-Ferreiro, A.; Otero-Espinar, F.J. Drug Delivery to the Posterior Segment of the Eye: Biopharmaceutic and Pharmacokinetic Considerations. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 269.

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