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Biological Obstacles for Identifying In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations of Orally Inhaled Formulations

1
Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH, 8010 Graz, Austria
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(7), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11070316
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
Oral inhalation of drugs is the classic therapy of obstructive lung diseases. In contrast to the oral route, the link between in vitro and in vivo findings is less well defined and predictive models and parameters for in vitro-in vivo correlations are missing. Frequently used in vitro models and problems in obtaining in vivo values to establish such models and to identify the action of formulations in vivo are discussed. It may be concluded that major obstacles to link in vitro parameters on in vivo action include lack of treatment adherence and incorrect use of inhalers by patients, variation in inhaler performance, changes by humidity, uncertainties about lung deposition, and difficulties to measure drug levels in epithelial lining fluid and tissue. Physiologically more relevant in vitro models, improvement in inhaler performance, and better techniques for in vivo measurements may help to better understand importance and interactions between individual in vitro parameters in pulmonary delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceutical aerosols; composition of epithelial lining fluid; lung deposition; pulmonary drug delivery; inhalers; patient compliance pharmaceutical aerosols; composition of epithelial lining fluid; lung deposition; pulmonary drug delivery; inhalers; patient compliance
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Fröhlich, E. Biological Obstacles for Identifying In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations of Orally Inhaled Formulations. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 316.

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