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Open AccessArticle

Development and Characterization of Liposomal Formulations Containing Phytosterols Extracted from Canola Oil Deodorizer Distillate along with Tocopherols as Food Additives

Drug Design and Discovery Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
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Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11040185
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada)
Phytosterols are plant sterols recommended as adjuvant therapy for hypercholesterolemia and tocopherols are well-established anti-oxidants. However, thermo-sensitivity, lipophilicity and formulation-dependent efficacy bring challenges in the development of functional foods, enriched with phytosterols and tocopherols. To address this, we developed liposomes containing brassicasterol, campesterol and β-sitosterol obtained from canola oil deodorizer distillate, along with alpha, gamma and delta tocopherol. Three approaches; thin film hydration-homogenization, thin film hydration-ultrasonication and Mozafari method were used for formulation. Validated liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was utilized to determine the entrapment efficiency of bioactives. Stability studies of liposomal formulations were conducted before and after pasteurization using high temperature short time (HTST) technique for a month. Vesicle size after homogenization and ultrasonication (<200 nm) was significantly lower than by Mozafari method (>200 nm). However, zeta potential (−9 to −14 mV) was comparable which was adequate for colloidal stability. Entrapment efficiencies were greater than 89% for all the phytosterols and tocopherols formulated by all three methods. Liposomes with optimum particle size and zeta potential were incorporated in model orange juice, showing adequate stability after pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s) for a month. Liposomes containing phytosterols obtained from canola waste along with tocopherols were developed and successfully applied as a food additive using model orange juice. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytosterols; tocopherols; liposomes; canola oil deodorizer distillate; model orange juice phytosterols; tocopherols; liposomes; canola oil deodorizer distillate; model orange juice
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Poudel, A.; Gachumi, G.; Wasan, K.M.; Dallal Bashi, Z.; El-Aneed, A.; Badea, I. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Formulations Containing Phytosterols Extracted from Canola Oil Deodorizer Distillate along with Tocopherols as Food Additives. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 185.

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