The current drug development practice lacks reliable and sensitive techniques to evaluate the immunotoxicity of drug candidates, i.e., their effect on the human immune system. This, in part, has resulted in a high attrition rate for novel drugs candidates. Organ-on-chip devices have emerged as key tools that permit the study of human physiology in controlled in vivo simulating environments. Furthermore, there has been a growing interest in developing the so called “body-on-chip” devices to better predict the systemic effects of drug candidates. This review describes existing biomimetic immune organs-on-chip, highlights their physiological relevance to drug development and discovery and emphasizes the need for developing comprehensive immune system-on-chip models. Such immune models can enhance the performance of novel drug candidates during clinical trials and contribute to reducing the high attrition rate as well as the high cost associated with drug development.
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