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Review

Recombination of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Features, Possible Mechanisms, and Future Directions

1
State Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, China
2
College of Animal Science, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, Wenzhou 325006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2024, 16(6), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060929
Submission received: 18 April 2024 / Revised: 4 June 2024 / Accepted: 5 June 2024 / Published: 7 June 2024

Abstract

Recombination is a pervasive phenomenon in RNA viruses and an important strategy for accelerating the evolution of RNA virus populations. Recombination in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was first reported in 1999, and many case reports have been published in recent years. In this review, all the existing reports on PRRSV recombination events were collected, and the genotypes, parental strains, and locations of the recombination breakpoints have been summarized and analyzed. The results showed that the recombination pattern constantly changes; whether inter- or intra-lineage recombination, the recombination hotspots vary in different recombination patterns. The virulence of recombinant PRRSVs was higher than that of the parental strains, and the emergence of virulence reversion was caused by recombination after using MLV vaccines. This could be attributed to the enhanced adaptability of recombinant PRRSV for entry and replication, facilitating their rapid propagation. The aim of this paper was to identify common features of recombinant PRRSV strains, reduce the recombination risk, and provide a foundation for future research into the mechanism of PRRSV recombination.
Keywords: PRRSV; recombination; viral evolution; vaccine safety PRRSV; recombination; viral evolution; vaccine safety

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cui, X.-Y.; Xia, D.-S.; Luo, L.-Z.; An, T.-Q. Recombination of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Features, Possible Mechanisms, and Future Directions. Viruses 2024, 16, 929. https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060929

AMA Style

Cui X-Y, Xia D-S, Luo L-Z, An T-Q. Recombination of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Features, Possible Mechanisms, and Future Directions. Viruses. 2024; 16(6):929. https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060929

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cui, Xing-Yang, Da-Song Xia, Ling-Zhi Luo, and Tong-Qing An. 2024. "Recombination of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Features, Possible Mechanisms, and Future Directions" Viruses 16, no. 6: 929. https://doi.org/10.3390/v16060929

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