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Article

Systemic Neutralizing Antibodies and Local Immune Responses Are Critical for the Control of SARS-CoV-2

1
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
2
Pan Genome Systems, Madison, WI 53719, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
4
Colombia Wisconsin One Health Consortium, Universidad Nacional Medellín, Calle 75#79a 5, Colombia
5
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zoltan Vajo
Viruses 2022, 14(6), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061262
Received: 8 May 2022 / Revised: 5 June 2022 / Accepted: 8 June 2022 / Published: 10 June 2022
Antibody measurements are primarily used to evaluate experimental and approved COVID-19 vaccines, which is unilateral considering our immune responses’ complex nature. Previously, we showed that nanoparticle plasmid DNA adjuvant system, QAC, and MVA based vaccines were immunogenic against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the protective efficacy of systemic humoral and mucosal cell-mediated immune responses in transgenic mice models against SARS-CoV-2 following nanoparticle immunization. Parenteral, intramuscular administration of QAC-based plasmid DNA vaccine-encoding SARS-CoV-2 S and N led to the induction of significant serum neutralizing humoral responses, which reduced viral burden in the lungs and prevented viral dissemination to the brain. In contrast, the mucosal, intranasal administration of a heterologous vaccine elicited significant mucosal cell-mediated immune responses in the lungs that limited lung viral replication. The presented results demonstrate that serum neutralizing humoral and local lung T-cell immune responses are critical for the control of SARS-CoV-2 replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; mucosal immunity; correlate of protection; nanovaccine SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; mucosal immunity; correlate of protection; nanovaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chandrasekar, S.S.; Phanse, Y.; Riel, M.; Hildebrand, R.E.; Hanafy, M.; Osorio, J.E.; Abdelgayed, S.S.; Talaat, A.M. Systemic Neutralizing Antibodies and Local Immune Responses Are Critical for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. Viruses 2022, 14, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061262

AMA Style

Chandrasekar SS, Phanse Y, Riel M, Hildebrand RE, Hanafy M, Osorio JE, Abdelgayed SS, Talaat AM. Systemic Neutralizing Antibodies and Local Immune Responses Are Critical for the Control of SARS-CoV-2. Viruses. 2022; 14(6):1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chandrasekar, Shaswath S., Yashdeep Phanse, Mariah Riel, Rachel E. Hildebrand, Mostafa Hanafy, Jorge E. Osorio, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, and Adel M. Talaat. 2022. "Systemic Neutralizing Antibodies and Local Immune Responses Are Critical for the Control of SARS-CoV-2" Viruses 14, no. 6: 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/v14061262

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