Next Article in Journal
Exacerbation of Influenza A Virus Disease Severity by Respiratory Syncytial Virus Co-Infection in a Mouse Model
Previous Article in Journal
In Memory of Sir Peter J. Lachmann, 1931–2020—Bees, Tickover, Factor I and Complement
Article

Adaptive Immune Response to Vaccinia Virus LIVP Infection of BALB/c Mice and Protection against Lethal Reinfection with Cowpox Virus

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, 630559 Koltsovo, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karla Helbig
Viruses 2021, 13(8), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081631
Received: 16 July 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 16 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Mass vaccination has played a critical role in the global eradication of smallpox. Various vaccinia virus (VACV) strains, whose origin has not been clearly documented in most cases, have been used as live vaccines in different countries. These VACV strains differed in pathogenicity towards various laboratory animals and in reactogenicity exhibited upon vaccination of humans. In this work, we studied the development of humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally (i.n.) or intradermally (i.d.) with the VACV LIVP strain at a dose of 105 PFU/mouse, which was used in Russia as the first generation smallpox vaccine. Active synthesis of VACV-specific IgM in the mice occurred on day 7 after inoculation, reached a maximum on day 14, and decreased by day 29. Synthesis of virus-specific IgG was detected only from day 14, and the level increased significantly by day 29 after infection of the mice. Immunization (i.n.) resulted in significantly higher production of VACV-specific antibodies compared to that upon i.d. inoculation of LIVP. There were no significant differences in the levels of the T cell response in mice after i.n. or i.d. VACV administration at any time point. The maximum level of VACV-specific T-cells was detected on day 14. By day 29 of the experiment, the level of VACV-specific T-lymphocytes in the spleen of mice significantly decreased for both immunization procedures. On day 30 after immunization with LIVP, mice were infected with the cowpox virus at a dose of 46 LD50. The i.n. immunized mice were resistant to this infection, while 33% of i.d. immunized mice died. Our findings indicate that the level of the humoral immune response to vaccination may play a decisive role in protection of animals from orthopoxvirus reinfection. View Full-Text
Keywords: poxviruses; vaccinia virus; vaccines; adaptive immune response; antibodies; T cells; protection poxviruses; vaccinia virus; vaccines; adaptive immune response; antibodies; T cells; protection
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shchelkunov, S.N.; Sergeev, A.A.; Yakubitskiy, S.N.; Titova, K.A.; Pyankov, S.A.; Kolosova, I.V.; Starostina, E.V.; Borgoyakova, M.B.; Zadorozhny, A.M.; Kisakov, D.N.; Shulgina, I.S.; Karpenko, L.I. Adaptive Immune Response to Vaccinia Virus LIVP Infection of BALB/c Mice and Protection against Lethal Reinfection with Cowpox Virus. Viruses 2021, 13, 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081631

AMA Style

Shchelkunov SN, Sergeev AA, Yakubitskiy SN, Titova KA, Pyankov SA, Kolosova IV, Starostina EV, Borgoyakova MB, Zadorozhny AM, Kisakov DN, Shulgina IS, Karpenko LI. Adaptive Immune Response to Vaccinia Virus LIVP Infection of BALB/c Mice and Protection against Lethal Reinfection with Cowpox Virus. Viruses. 2021; 13(8):1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shchelkunov, Sergei N., Alexander A. Sergeev, Stanislav N. Yakubitskiy, Ksenia A. Titova, Stepan A. Pyankov, Irina V. Kolosova, Ekaterina V. Starostina, Mariya B. Borgoyakova, Alexey M. Zadorozhny, Denis N. Kisakov, Irina S. Shulgina, and Larisa I. Karpenko 2021. "Adaptive Immune Response to Vaccinia Virus LIVP Infection of BALB/c Mice and Protection against Lethal Reinfection with Cowpox Virus" Viruses 13, no. 8: 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13081631

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop