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Ecological Effects on the Dynamics of West Nile Virus and Avian Plasmodium: The Importance of Mosquito Communities and Landscape

1
Department of Theoretical and Computational Ecology (TCE), Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Parasitology, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain
3
Doñana Biological Station (EBD-CSIC), E-41092 Seville, Spain
4
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Boris Pastorino
Viruses 2021, 13(7), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071208
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Arbovirus in Europe)
Humans and wildlife are at risk from certain vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and West Nile and yellow fevers. Factors linked to global change, including habitat alteration, land-use intensification, the spread of alien species, and climate change, are operating on a global scale and affect both the incidence and distribution of many vector-borne diseases. Hence, understanding the drivers that regulate the transmission of pathogens in the wild is of great importance for ecological, evolutionary, health, and economic reasons. In this literature review, we discuss the ecological factors potentially affecting the transmission of two mosquito-borne pathogens circulating naturally between birds and mosquitoes, namely, West Nile virus (WNV) and the avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Traditionally, the study of pathogen transmission has focused only on vectors or hosts and the interactions between them, while the role of landscape has largely been ignored. However, from an ecological point of view, it is essential not only to study the interaction between each of these organisms but also to understand the environmental scenarios in which these processes take place. We describe here some of the similarities and differences in the transmission of these two pathogens and how research into both systems may facilitate a greater understanding of the dynamics of vector-borne pathogens in the wild. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecology; emerging and remerging diseases; haemosporidians; insect vectors; mosquito-borne pathogens; wildlife ecology; emerging and remerging diseases; haemosporidians; insect vectors; mosquito-borne pathogens; wildlife
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferraguti, M.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Figuerola, J. Ecological Effects on the Dynamics of West Nile Virus and Avian Plasmodium: The Importance of Mosquito Communities and Landscape. Viruses 2021, 13, 1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071208

AMA Style

Ferraguti M, Martínez-de la Puente J, Figuerola J. Ecological Effects on the Dynamics of West Nile Virus and Avian Plasmodium: The Importance of Mosquito Communities and Landscape. Viruses. 2021; 13(7):1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071208

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferraguti, Martina, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, and Jordi Figuerola. 2021. "Ecological Effects on the Dynamics of West Nile Virus and Avian Plasmodium: The Importance of Mosquito Communities and Landscape" Viruses 13, no. 7: 1208. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13071208

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