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Open AccessArticle

The Full Region of N-Terminal in Polymerase of IBDV Plays an Important Role in Viral Replication and Pathogenicity: Either Partial Region or Single Amino Acid V4I Substitution Does Not Completely Lead to the Virus Attenuation to Three-Yellow Chickens

1
Institute for Poultry Science and Health, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China
2
School of Marine Sciences and Biotechnology, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006, China
3
Guangxi Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Polysaccharide Materials and Modifications, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This author contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Karla Helbig and Subir Sarker
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010107
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal and Wildlife Viruses)
Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) has haunted the poultry industry with severe, prolonged immunosuppression of chickens when infected at an early age and can easily lead to other secondary infections. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms could lead to effective prevention and control of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD). Evidence suggests that the N-terminal domain of polymerase in segment B plays an important role, but it is not clear which part or residual is crucial for the pathogenicity. Using a reverse genetics technique, a molecular clone (rNN1172) of the parental vvIBDV strain NN1172 was generated, and its pathogenicity was found to be the same as the parental virus. Then, three recombinant chimeric viruses were rescued based on the rNN1172 and substituted with the counterparts in the N-terminal domain of the attenuated vaccine strain B87: the rNN1172-B87VP1a (substituting the full region of the 1–167 aa residuals), the rNN1172-B87VP1a∆4 (substituting the region of the 5–167 aa residuals), and the rNN1172-VP1∆4 (one single aa residual substitution V4I), to better explore the role of the N-terminal domain of polymerase on the viral pathogenicity. Interestingly, all these substitutions played different roles in the viral pathogenicity: the mortality of the rNN1172-B87VP1a-challenged chickens was significantly reduced from 30% to 0%. No obvious lesion was found in the histopathological examination, and the lowest viral genome copy number was also detected in the bursa when compared to the parental and two other recombinant viruses. The mortalities caused by rNN1172-B87VP1a∆4 and rNN1172-B87VP1∆4, respectively, were all reduced to 10% and had a delayed onset of death. Our results also revealed that the pathogenicity of the IBDV was consistent with the viral replication efficiency in vivo (bursae). This study demonstrated that the full region of the N-terminal of polymerase plays an important role in viral replication and pathogenicity, but the substitutions of its partial region or a single residual do not completely lead to the virus attenuation to Three-Yellow chickens, although that significantly reduces its pathogenicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Infectious Bursal Disease Virus; N-terminal domain of VP1; reverse genetics technique; recombinant virus; viral replication and pathogenicity Infectious Bursal Disease Virus; N-terminal domain of VP1; reverse genetics technique; recombinant virus; viral replication and pathogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, W.; Huang, Y.; Ji, Z.; Chen, G.; Zhang, Y.; Qiao, Y.; Shi, M.; Li, M.; Huang, T.; Wei, T.; Mo, M.; He, X.; Wei, P. The Full Region of N-Terminal in Polymerase of IBDV Plays an Important Role in Viral Replication and Pathogenicity: Either Partial Region or Single Amino Acid V4I Substitution Does Not Completely Lead to the Virus Attenuation to Three-Yellow Chickens. Viruses 2021, 13, 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010107

AMA Style

Wang W, Huang Y, Ji Z, Chen G, Zhang Y, Qiao Y, Shi M, Li M, Huang T, Wei T, Mo M, He X, Wei P. The Full Region of N-Terminal in Polymerase of IBDV Plays an Important Role in Viral Replication and Pathogenicity: Either Partial Region or Single Amino Acid V4I Substitution Does Not Completely Lead to the Virus Attenuation to Three-Yellow Chickens. Viruses. 2021; 13(1):107. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Yu; Ji, Zhonghua; Chen, Guo; Zhang, Yan; Qiao, Yuanzheng; Shi, Mengya; Li, Min; Huang, Teng; Wei, Tianchao; Mo, Meilan; He, Xiumiao; Wei, Ping. 2021. "The Full Region of N-Terminal in Polymerase of IBDV Plays an Important Role in Viral Replication and Pathogenicity: Either Partial Region or Single Amino Acid V4I Substitution Does Not Completely Lead to the Virus Attenuation to Three-Yellow Chickens" Viruses 13, no. 1: 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010107

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