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Article

Infection Dynamics of Swine Influenza Virus in a Danish Pig Herd Reveals Recurrent Infections with Different Variants of the H1N2 Swine Influenza A Virus Subtype

1
Geelong Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
2
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
3
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
4
Division for Diagnostics & Scientific Advice, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
5
Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091013
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Pathogenesis of Avian and Animal Influenza Viruses)
Influenza A virus (IAV) in swine, so-called swine influenza A virus (swIAV), causes respiratory illness in pigs around the globe. In Danish pig herds, a H1N2 subtype named H1N2dk is one of the main circulating swIAV. In this cohort study, the infection dynamic of swIAV was evaluated in a Danish pig herd by sampling and PCR testing of pigs from two weeks of age until slaughter at 22 weeks of age. In addition, next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify and characterize the complete genome of swIAV circulating in the herd, and to examine the antigenic variability in the antigenic sites of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Overall, 76.6% of the pigs became PCR positive for swIAV during the study, with the highest prevalence at four weeks of age. Detailed analysis of the virus sequences obtained showed that the majority of mutations occurred at antigenic sites in the HA and NA proteins of the virus. At least two different H1N2 variants were found to be circulating in the herd; one H1N2 variant was circulating at the sow and nursery sites, while another H1N2 variant was circulating at the finisher site. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that individual pigs had recurrent swIAV infections with the two different H1N2 variants, but re-infection with the same H1N2 variant was also observed. Better understandings of the epidemiology, genetic and antigenic diversity of swIAV may help to design better health interventions for the prevention and control of swIAV infections in the herds. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine influenza A virus (swIAV); prevalence; H1N2; antigenic diversity; phylogenetic analysis; pig herd swine influenza A virus (swIAV); prevalence; H1N2; antigenic diversity; phylogenetic analysis; pig herd
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhatta, T.R.; Ryt-Hansen, P.; Nielsen, J.P.; Larsen, L.E.; Larsen, I.; Chamings, A.; Goecke, N.B.; Alexandersen, S. Infection Dynamics of Swine Influenza Virus in a Danish Pig Herd Reveals Recurrent Infections with Different Variants of the H1N2 Swine Influenza A Virus Subtype. Viruses 2020, 12, 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091013

AMA Style

Bhatta TR, Ryt-Hansen P, Nielsen JP, Larsen LE, Larsen I, Chamings A, Goecke NB, Alexandersen S. Infection Dynamics of Swine Influenza Virus in a Danish Pig Herd Reveals Recurrent Infections with Different Variants of the H1N2 Swine Influenza A Virus Subtype. Viruses. 2020; 12(9):1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhatta, Tarka R., Pia Ryt-Hansen, Jens P. Nielsen, Lars E. Larsen, Inge Larsen, Anthony Chamings, Nicole B. Goecke, and Soren Alexandersen. 2020. "Infection Dynamics of Swine Influenza Virus in a Danish Pig Herd Reveals Recurrent Infections with Different Variants of the H1N2 Swine Influenza A Virus Subtype" Viruses 12, no. 9: 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091013

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