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The Nef Protein of the Macrophage Tropic HIV-1 Strain AD8 Counteracts Human BST-2/Tetherin
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Macrophage Cell-Cell Interactions Promoting HIV-1 Infection

The Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, The University of Oxford, Oxford OX13RE, UK
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Viruses 2020, 12(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050492
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Myeloid Cells in Viral Infections)
Many pathogens infect macrophages as part of their intracellular life cycle. This is particularly true for viruses, of which HIV-1 is one of the best studied. HIV-1 infection of macrophages has important consequences for viral persistence and pathogenesis, but the mechanisms of macrophage infection remain to be fully elucidated. Despite expressing viral entry receptors, macrophages are inefficiently infected by cell-free HIV-1 virions, whereas direct cell-cell spread is more efficient. Different modes of cell-cell spread have been described, including the uptake by macrophages of infected T cells and the fusion of infected T cells with macrophages, both leading to macrophage infection. Cell-cell spread can also transmit HIV-1 between macrophages and from macrophages to T cells. Here, we describe the current state of the field concerning the cell-cell spread of HIV-1 to and from macrophages, discuss mechanisms, and highlight potential in vivo relevance. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; macrophage; T cell; virological synapse; phagocytosis; cell-cell fusion; nanotubes HIV-1; macrophage; T cell; virological synapse; phagocytosis; cell-cell fusion; nanotubes
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Dupont, M.; Sattentau, Q.J. Macrophage Cell-Cell Interactions Promoting HIV-1 Infection. Viruses 2020, 12, 492.

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