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Virus-Like Particles as an Immunogenic Platform for Cancer Vaccines

AgilVax, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87110, USA
Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Molecular Biotechnology Center, University of Torino, 10124 Torino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 488;
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Like Particle Vaccines)
Virus-like particles (VLP) spontaneously assemble from viral structural proteins. They are naturally biocompatible and non-infectious. VLP can serve as a platform for many potential vaccine epitopes, display them in a dense repeating array, and elicit antibodies against non-immunogenic substances, including tumor-associated self-antigens. Genetic or chemical conjugation facilitates the multivalent display of a homologous or heterologous epitope. Most VLP range in diameter from 25 to 100 nm and, in most cases, drain freely into the lymphatic vessels and induce antibodies with high titers and affinity without the need for additional adjuvants. VLP administration can be performed using different strategies, regimens, and doses to improve the immunogenicity of the antigen they expose on their surface. This article summarizes the features of VLP and presents them as a relevant platform technology to address not only infectious diseases but also chronic diseases and cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus-like particles; vaccine; cancer; immunotherapy virus-like particles; vaccine; cancer; immunotherapy
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Caldeira, J.C.; Perrine, M.; Pericle, F.; Cavallo, F. Virus-Like Particles as an Immunogenic Platform for Cancer Vaccines. Viruses 2020, 12, 488.

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