Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Broad Antiviral Activity of Ginkgolic Acid against Chikungunya, Mayaro, Una, and Zika Viruses
Previous Article in Journal
RNA Binding Suppresses Tsg101 Recognition of Ub-Modified Gag and Facilitates Recruitment to the Plasma Membrane
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of a Reverse Genetics System for Toscana Virus (Lineage A)
viruses-logo
Article Menu
Open AccessArticle

West Nile Virus Epidemic in Germany Triggered by Epizootic Emergence, 2019

1
Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
2
German Centre for Infection Research, Partner Site Hamburg-Luebeck-Borstel-Riems, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
3
Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
4
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
5
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
6
Small Animal Clinic, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
7
Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany
8
Institute of Infectiology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
9
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
10
Clinic for Birds, Small Mammals, Reptiles and Ornamental Fish, Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 85764 Oberschleißheim, Germany
11
Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union, 10117 Berlin, Germany
12
Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Clinic, Klinikum Chemnitz, 09116 Chemnitz, Germany
13
Leibniz-Institute for Zoo- and Wildlife Research (IZW), 10315 Berlin, Germany
14
Institute of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
15
Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Natural Sciences, Universität Hamburg, 20148 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040448
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
One year after the first autochthonous transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) to birds and horses in Germany, an epizootic emergence of WNV was again observed in 2019. The number of infected birds and horses was considerably higher compared to 2018 (12 birds, two horses), resulting in the observation of the first WNV epidemy in Germany: 76 cases in birds, 36 in horses and five confirmed mosquito-borne, autochthonous human cases. We demonstrated that Germany experienced several WNV introduction events and that strains of a distinct group (Eastern German WNV clade), which was introduced to Germany as a single introduction event, dominated mosquito, birds, horse and human-related virus variants in 2018 and 2019. Virus strains in this clade are characterized by a specific-Lys2114Arg mutation, which might lead to an increase in viral fitness. Extraordinary high temperatures in 2018/2019 allowed a low extrinsic incubation period (EIP), which drove the epizootic emergence and, in the end, most likely triggered the 2019 epidemic. Spatiotemporal EIP values correlated with the geographical WNV incidence. This study highlights the risk of a further spread in Germany in the next years with additional human WNV infections. Thus, surveillance of birds is essential to provide an early epidemic warning and thus, initiate targeted control measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; Germany; epizooty; epidemic; human; bird; horses; mosquitoes; transmission risk; zoonoses West Nile virus; Germany; epizooty; epidemic; human; bird; horses; mosquitoes; transmission risk; zoonoses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ziegler, U.; Santos, P.D.; Groschup, M.H.; Hattendorf, C.; Eiden, M.; Höper, D.; Eisermann, P.; Keller, M.; Michel, F.; Klopfleisch, R.; Müller, K.; Werner, D.; Kampen, H.; Beer, M.; Frank, C.; Lachmann, R.; Tews, B.A.; Wylezich, C.; Rinder, M.; Lachmann, L.; Grünewald, T.; Szentiks, C.A.; Sieg, M.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Cadar, D.; Lühken, R. West Nile Virus Epidemic in Germany Triggered by Epizootic Emergence, 2019. Viruses 2020, 12, 448.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop