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Isolation of PCV3 from Perinatal and Reproductive Cases of PCV3-Associated Disease and In Vivo Characterization of PCV3 Replication in CD/CD Growing Pigs

1
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020219
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 16 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) has been identified as a putative swine pathogen with a subset of infections resulting in stillborn and mummified fetuses, encephalitis and myocarditis in perinatal, and periarteritis in growing pigs. Three PCV3 isolates were isolated from weak-born piglets or elevated stillborn and mummified fetuses. Full-length genome sequences from different passages and isolates (PCV3a1 ISU27734, PCV3a2 ISU58312, PCV3c ISU44806) were determined using metagenomics sequencing. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by qPCR, IFA, and in situ hybridization. In vivo replication of PCV3 was also demonstrated in CD/CD pigs (n = 8) under experimental conditions. Viremia, first detected at 7 dpi, was detected in all pigs by 28 dpi. IgM antibody response was detected between 7–14 dpi in 5/8 PCV3-inoculated pigs but no IgG seroconversion was detected throughout the study. Pigs presented histological lesion consistent with multi systemic inflammation characterized by myocarditis and systemic perivasculitis. Viral replication was confirmed in all tissues by in situ hybridization. Clinically, all animals were unremarkable throughout the study. Although the clinical relevance of PCV3 remains under debate, this is the first isolation of PCV3 from perinatal and reproductive cases of PCV3-associated disease and in vivo characterization of PCV3 infection in a CD/CD pig model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Porcine circovirus 3; isolation; characterization; reproductive failure; swine Porcine circovirus 3; isolation; characterization; reproductive failure; swine
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Mora-Díaz, J.; Piñeyro, P.; Shen, H.; Schwartz, K.; Vannucci, F.; Li, G.; Arruda, B.; Giménez-Lirola, L. Isolation of PCV3 from Perinatal and Reproductive Cases of PCV3-Associated Disease and In Vivo Characterization of PCV3 Replication in CD/CD Growing Pigs. Viruses 2020, 12, 219.

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