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Cytokine Storm Combined with Humoral Immune Response Defect in Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Case, Tatarstan, Russia

1
Openlab “Gene and Cell Technologies”, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
2
University Kazan Clinic, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russian
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Kazan State Medical Academy, Kazan 420012, the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
4
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
6
Department of Pathology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070601
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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PDF [2766 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]
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Abstract

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in Tatarstan, where thousands of cases are registered annually. Puumala orthohantavirus is commonly detected in human case samples as well as in captured bank voles, the rodent hosts. The pathogenesis of HFRS is still not well described, although the cytokine storm hypothesis is largely accepted. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of a fatal HFRS case compared with twenty four non-fatal cases where activation of the humoral and cellular immune responses, pro-inflammatory cytokines and disturbed blood coagulation were detected using immunological, histological, genetic and clinical approaches. Multiple organ failure combined with disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome and acute renal failure was the cause of death. Decreased Interleukin (IL)-7 and increased IL-18, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-5, stem cell growth factor (SCGF)-b and tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) serum levels were found, supporting the cytokine storm hypothesis of hantavirus pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: HFRS; IL-18; CCL5; SCGF-b; TNF-β; cytokine; fatal case; Puumala orthohantavirus HFRS; IL-18; CCL5; SCGF-b; TNF-β; cytokine; fatal case; Puumala orthohantavirus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Garanina, E.; Martynova, E.; Davidyuk, Y.; Kabwe, E.; Ivanov, K.; Titova, A.; Markelova, M.; Zhuravleva, M.; Cherepnev, G.; Shakirova, V.G.; Khaertynova, I.; Tarlinton, R.; Rizvanov, A.; Khaiboullina, S.; Morzunov, S. Cytokine Storm Combined with Humoral Immune Response Defect in Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Case, Tatarstan, Russia. Viruses 2019, 11, 601.

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