Next Article in Journal
Storage-Dependent Generation of Potent Anti-ZIKV Activity in Human Breast Milk
Next Article in Special Issue
Haemostatic Changes in Five Patients Infected with Ebola Virus
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Clinical Evaluation of QuickNaviTM-Ebola in the 2018 Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Open AccessReview

Animal Models for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Human Disease

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current Address: Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, 8400 Research Plaza, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 590;
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Advances in Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Research)
PDF [735 KB, uploaded 1 July 2019]


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an important tick-borne human pathogen endemic throughout Asia, Africa and Europe. CCHFV is also an emerging virus, with recent outbreaks in Western Europe. CCHFV can infect a large number of wild and domesticated mammalian species and some avian species, however the virus does not cause severe disease in these animals, but can produce viremia. In humans, CCHFV infection can lead to a severe, life-threating disease characterized by hemodynamic instability, hepatic injury and neurological disorders, with a worldwide lethality rate of ~20–30%. The pathogenic mechanisms of CCHF are poorly understood, largely due to the dearth of animal models. However, several important animal models have been recently described, including novel murine models and a non-human primate model. In this review, we examine the current knowledge of CCHF-mediated pathogenesis and describe how animal models are helping elucidate the molecular and cellular determinants of disease. This information should serve as a reference for those interested in CCHFV animal models and their utility for evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCMs) and in the study of pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; animal models; pathogenesis; medical countermeasures Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; animal models; pathogenesis; medical countermeasures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Garrison, A.R.; Smith, D.R.; Golden, J.W. Animal Models for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Human Disease. Viruses 2019, 11, 590.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top