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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Intranasal Pseudorabies Virus AH02LA Infection on Microbial Community and Immune Status in the Ileum and Colon of Piglets

1
Institute of Veterinary Immunology and Engineering, National Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Veterinary Biologicals, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
2
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060518
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) variants broke out in china since 2011, causing high fever, respiratory distress, systemic neurological symptoms, and diarrhea in piglets. This study investigated the effect of intranasal PRV variant (AH02LA) infection on ileal and colonic bacterial communities and immune status in piglets. Ten piglets (free of PRV) were assigned to PRV variant and control groups (uninfected). At day 5 after inoculation, all piglets were euthanized. No PRV was detected in the ileal and colonic mucosa. In the PRV group, we observed up-regulation of specific cytokines gene expression, down-regulation of intestinal barrier-related gene expression, and reduction of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration in the ileum and colon. PRV infection increased the diversity of ileal bacterial community composition. PRV infection reduced the abundance of some beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus species in the ileum and colon; butyrate-producing bacteria species in the colon) and increased the abundance of potentially pathogenic Fusobacterium nucleatum in the ileum and Sphingomonas paucimobilis in the colon. Moreover, PRV infection decreased concentrations of the beneficial lactate in the ileum and butyrate in the colon. However, this study does not allow to evaluate whether the observed changes are directly due to the PRV infection or rather to indirect effects (fever, clinical signs and changes in diet), and will be our next research content. In summary, our findings provide evidence that intranasal PRV infection directly or indirectly brings gut health risks and implications, although no PRV was detected in the ileum and colon. View Full-Text
Keywords: intranasal PRV AH02LA infection; microbial community; microbial metabolites; immune status; piglets intranasal PRV AH02LA infection; microbial community; microbial metabolites; immune status; piglets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Chen, S.; Qiao, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Xu, M.; Wang, Z.; Hou, J.; Wang, J.; Fan, H. Effects of Intranasal Pseudorabies Virus AH02LA Infection on Microbial Community and Immune Status in the Ileum and Colon of Piglets. Viruses 2019, 11, 518.

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