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Open AccessArticle

Transcriptome Response of Female Culicoides sonorensis Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Early Infection with Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV-2)

1
Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 1515 College Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
2
Clemson University Center for Human Genetics, 152 Self Regional Hall, 114 Gregor Mendel Circle, Greenwood, SC 29649, USA
3
Department of Biology and Geology, University of South Carolina Aiken, 471 University Parkway, Aiken, SC 29801, USA
4
School of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
5
Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
6
Stored Product Insect and Engineering Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 1515 College Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
7
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050473
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
Female Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), which causes morbidity and mortality in wild and domesticated ruminants. The aims in this study were to identify key changes in female midge transcriptome profiles occurring during early infection with EHDV-2. Midges were fed either negative control bloodmeals or bloodmeals containing EHDV-2 and transcriptomes were acquired at 36 h through deep sequencing. Reads were de novo assembled into a transcriptome comprised of 18,754 unigenes. Overall, there were 2401 differentially expressed unigenes and ~60% were downregulated in response to the virus (953 up; 1448 down). Downstream Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway mapping, and manual analyses were used to identify the effect of virus ingestion at both the gene and pathway levels. Downregulated unigenes were predominantly assigned to pathways related to cell/tissue structure and integrity (actin cytoskeleton, adherens junction, focal adhesion, hippo signaling), calcium signaling, eye morphogenesis and axon guidance. Unigenes attributed to sensory functions (especially vision), behavior, learning and memory were largely downregulated. Upregulated unigenes included those coding for innate immune processes, olfaction and photoreceptor pigments. Our results suggest that midges respond to virus infection as soon as 36 h post-ingestion, and that EHDV-2 may have a significant phenotypic effect on sensory and neural tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: Culicoides; vector; arbovirus; differential expression; dissemination; innate immune; visual perception; midge; epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Culicoides; vector; arbovirus; differential expression; dissemination; innate immune; visual perception; midge; epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus
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Nayduch, D.; Shankar, V.; Mills, M.K.; Robl, T.; Drolet, B.S.; Ruder, M.G.; Scully, E.D.; Saski, C.A. Transcriptome Response of Female Culicoides sonorensis Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to Early Infection with Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV-2). Viruses 2019, 11, 473.

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