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Open AccessArticle

Detection Patterns of Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Novel Porcine Parvoviruses 2 through 6 (PPV2–PPV6) in Polish Swine Farms

1
Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159C, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050474
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a major causative agent in reproductive failure, but in the last two decades many novel porcine parvoviruses were described and designated as porcine parvovirus 2 through 6 (PPV2–PPV6). However, their role for pig health is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to better understand the on-farm prevalence of PPVs in different age groups of pigs, and to assess the diagnostic applicability of testing different diagnostic materials. In total, 271 oral fluids, 1244 serum samples, and 1238 fecal samples were collected from 3–21-week-old pigs from 19 farms, and after pooling by 4–6, tested by real-time PCR. The results showed that PPVs are widely spread in Poland and that the highest detection rates were obtained for oral fluids (ranging from 10.7% (PPV1) to 48.7% (PPV2)). Fattening pigs were the age group with the most frequent detection of PPVs (ranging from 8.6% (PPV1) to 49.1% (PPV2)). Porcine parvoviruses were detected mostly in growing-finishing pigs and the infection persisted until the late fattening period, which may suggest the chronic character of the infection (especially for PPV2, which was found to commonly infect animals of all ages). Particularly low Ct values detected for PPV2, PPV3, PPV5, and PPV6 in serum pools from some farms suggested that these viruses may cause high levels of viremia in one or more individuals included in these pools. Further studies are needed to quantify the levels of PPVs viremia and to assess the impact in co-infections with other, often endemic pig viruses, such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). View Full-Text
Keywords: pig; oral fluid; serum; feces; piglets; weaners; fatteners; porcine parvoviruses; real-time PCR pig; oral fluid; serum; feces; piglets; weaners; fatteners; porcine parvoviruses; real-time PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miłek, D.; Woźniak, A.; Guzowska, M.; Stadejek, T. Detection Patterns of Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Novel Porcine Parvoviruses 2 through 6 (PPV2–PPV6) in Polish Swine Farms. Viruses 2019, 11, 474.

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