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IIV-6 Inhibits NF-κB Responses in Drosophila

1
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
2
RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX T5390, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050409
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract

The host immune response and virus-encoded immune evasion proteins pose constant, mutual selective pressure on each other. Virally encoded immune evasion proteins also indicate which host pathways must be inhibited to allow for viral replication. Here, we show that IIV-6 is capable of inhibiting the two Drosophila NF-κB signaling pathways, Imd and Toll. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene induction downstream of either pathway is suppressed when cells infected with IIV-6 are also stimulated with Toll or Imd ligands. We find that cleavage of both Imd and Relish, as well as Relish nuclear translocation, three key points in Imd signal transduction, occur in IIV-6 infected cells, indicating that the mechanism of viral inhibition is farther downstream, at the level of Relish promoter binding or transcriptional activation. Additionally, flies co-infected with both IIV-6 and the Gram-negative bacterium, Erwinia carotovora carotovora, succumb to infection more rapidly than flies singly infected with either the virus or the bacterium. These findings demonstrate how pre-existing infections can have a dramatic and negative effect on secondary infections, and establish a Drosophila model to study confection susceptibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral immune evasion; immunomodulators; NF-κB; Imd; DNA virus; host-pathogen interactions; IIV-6 viral immune evasion; immunomodulators; NF-κB; Imd; DNA virus; host-pathogen interactions; IIV-6
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West, C.; Rus, F.; Chen, Y.; Kleino, A.; Gangloff, M.; Gammon, D.B.; Silverman, N. IIV-6 Inhibits NF-κB Responses in Drosophila. Viruses 2019, 11, 409.

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