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Extracellular Vesicles and Ebola Virus: A New Mechanism of Immune Evasion

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
Emergent BioSolutions, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, USA
Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Viral Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA
Integrated BioTherapeutics, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20850, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 410;
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
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Ebola virus (EBOV) disease can result in a range of symptoms anywhere from virtually asymptomatic to severe hemorrhagic fever during acute infection. Additionally, spans of asymptomatic persistence in recovering survivors is possible, during which transmission of the virus may occur. In acute infection, substantial cytokine storm and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis take place, resulting in uncontrolled, systemic inflammation in affected individuals. Recently, studies have demonstrated the presence of EBOV proteins VP40, glycoprotein (GP), and nucleoprotein (NP) packaged into extracellular vesicles (EVs) during infection. EVs containing EBOV proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis in recipient immune cells, as well as contain pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this manuscript, we review the current field of knowledge on EBOV EVs including the mechanisms of their biogenesis, their cargo and their effects in recipient cells. Furthermore, we discuss some of the effects that may be induced by EBOV EVs that have not yet been characterized and highlight the remaining questions and future directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ebola virus; exosome; extracellular vesicles; VP40; NP; GP; cytokine Ebola virus; exosome; extracellular vesicles; VP40; NP; GP; cytokine

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Pleet, M.L.; DeMarino, C.; Stonier, S.W.; Dye, J.M.; Jacobson, S.; Aman, M.J.; Kashanchi, F. Extracellular Vesicles and Ebola Virus: A New Mechanism of Immune Evasion. Viruses 2019, 11, 410.

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