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Extracellular Vesicles and Ebola Virus: A New Mechanism of Immune Evasion

1
Laboratory of Molecular Virology, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
2
Emergent BioSolutions, Gaithersburg, MD 20879, USA
3
Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
4
Viral Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA
5
Integrated BioTherapeutics, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20850, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050410
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
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Abstract

Ebola virus (EBOV) disease can result in a range of symptoms anywhere from virtually asymptomatic to severe hemorrhagic fever during acute infection. Additionally, spans of asymptomatic persistence in recovering survivors is possible, during which transmission of the virus may occur. In acute infection, substantial cytokine storm and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis take place, resulting in uncontrolled, systemic inflammation in affected individuals. Recently, studies have demonstrated the presence of EBOV proteins VP40, glycoprotein (GP), and nucleoprotein (NP) packaged into extracellular vesicles (EVs) during infection. EVs containing EBOV proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis in recipient immune cells, as well as contain pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this manuscript, we review the current field of knowledge on EBOV EVs including the mechanisms of their biogenesis, their cargo and their effects in recipient cells. Furthermore, we discuss some of the effects that may be induced by EBOV EVs that have not yet been characterized and highlight the remaining questions and future directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ebola virus; exosome; extracellular vesicles; VP40; NP; GP; cytokine Ebola virus; exosome; extracellular vesicles; VP40; NP; GP; cytokine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pleet, M.L.; DeMarino, C.; Stonier, S.W.; Dye, J.M.; Jacobson, S.; Aman, M.J.; Kashanchi, F. Extracellular Vesicles and Ebola Virus: A New Mechanism of Immune Evasion. Viruses 2019, 11, 410.

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