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Viruses 2019, 11(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030270

Compartmentalization of Subtype A17 of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses between Blood and Colostrum in Infected Goats Is Not Exclusively Associated to the env Gene

National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
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Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

The compartmentalization of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) subtype A17 was analyzed in colostrum and peripheral blood leukocyte cells of three naturally infected goats. This study aimed to analyze heterogeneity of the SRLV env (V4V5) gene, which encodes neutralizing epitopes of SU glycoprotein, the gag gene encoding capsid protein (CA), and LTR, a noncoding region, responsible for determination of cell tropism. Compartmentalization was assessed using six established tree or distance-based methods, including permutation test to determine statistical significance. We found statistical evidence of compartmentalization between blood and colostrum in all infected goats although phylogenetic evidence of such compartmentalization was not obvious. Our study demonstrated that compartmentalization is not exclusively specific to the env gene, as we revealed that gag and LTR sequences are also compartmentalized between blood and colostrum. The work also confirms the combined use of different methods as essential for reliable determination of intrahost viral compartmentalization. Identifying and characterizing distinct viral subpopulations and the genetic evolution of SRLV in specific anatomical sites enhances our overall understanding of SRLV pathogenesis, immune control, and particularly virus transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: compartmentalization; small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV); small ruminant lentiviruse (SRLV); goat; colostrum compartmentalization; small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV); small ruminant lentiviruse (SRLV); goat; colostrum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Olech, M.; Kuźmak, J. Compartmentalization of Subtype A17 of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses between Blood and Colostrum in Infected Goats Is Not Exclusively Associated to the env Gene. Viruses 2019, 11, 270.

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