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Immune System Modulation and Viral Persistence in Bats: Understanding Viral Spillover

Department of Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada
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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020192
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats 2019)
Bats harbor a myriad of viruses and some of these viruses may have spilled over to other species including humans. Spillover events are rare and several factors must align to create the “perfect storm” that would ultimately lead to a spillover. One of these factors is the increased shedding of virus by bats. Several studies have indicated that bats have unique defense mechanisms that allow them to be persistently or latently infected with viruses. Factors leading to an increase in the viral load of persistently infected bats would facilitate shedding of virus. This article reviews the unique nature of bat immune defenses that regulate virus replication and the various molecular mechanisms that play a role in altering the balanced bat–virus relationship. View Full-Text
Keywords: Immune response; flight; immune tolerance; viral persistence; spillover; bats; viruses Immune response; flight; immune tolerance; viral persistence; spillover; bats; viruses
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Subudhi, S.; Rapin, N.; Misra, V. Immune System Modulation and Viral Persistence in Bats: Understanding Viral Spillover. Viruses 2019, 11, 192.

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