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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020109

Cell-Penetrating Mx1 Enhances Anti-Viral Resistance against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection

1
Biomedical Science and Engineering Interdisciplinary Program, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea
2
Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea
3
KAIST Institute for Health Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Abstract

Dynamin-like GTPase myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) is an intracellular anti-viral protein following the activation of type I and type III interferon signaling. Mx1 inhibits viral replication by blocking the transcription of viral RNA, and a deficiency in this protein enhances susceptibility to influenza infection. Thus, Mx1 could be another efficient target of anti-influenza therapy. To test our hypothesis, we fused poly-arginine cell-penetrating peptides to the C terminus of Mx1 (Mx1-9R) and examined the anti-viral activity of Mx1-9R in vitro and in vivo. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney epithelial cells internalized the Mx1-9R within 12 h. Pre-exposure Mx1-9R treatment inhibited viral replication and viral RNA expression in infected cells. Further, intranasal administration of Mx1-9R improved the survival of mice infected with the PR8 influenza viral strain. These data support the consideration of Mx1-9R as a novel therapeutic agent against mucosal influenza virus infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mx1; influenza virus; cell-penetrating peptide; type I interferon Mx1; influenza virus; cell-penetrating peptide; type I interferon
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jung, H.E.; Oh, J.E.; Lee, H.K. Cell-Penetrating Mx1 Enhances Anti-Viral Resistance against Mucosal Influenza Viral Infection. Viruses 2019, 11, 109.

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