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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020110

Mechanisms of Strain Diversity of Disease-Associated in-Register Parallel β-Sheet Amyloids and Implications About Prion Strains

1
Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
2
Center for Bioinformatics and Molecular Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors equally contributed to the work.
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Molecular Targets of Prion and Prion-Like Strains)
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Abstract

The mechanism of prion strain diversity remains unsolved. Investigation of inheritance and diversification of protein-based pathogenic information demands the identification of the detailed structures of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrPSc); however, achieving purification is difficult without affecting infectivity. Similar prion-like properties are recognized also in other disease-associated in-register parallel β-sheet amyloids including Tau and α-synuclein (αSyn) amyloids. Investigations into structures of those amyloids via solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cryo-electron microscopy recently made remarkable advances due to their relatively small sizes and lack of post-translational modifications. Herein, we review advances regarding pathogenic amyloids, particularly Tau and αSyn, and discuss implications about strain diversity mechanisms of prion/PrPSc from the perspective that PrPSc is an in-register parallel β-sheet amyloid. Additionally, we present our recent data of molecular dynamics simulations of αSyn amyloid, which suggest significance of compatibility between β-sheet propensities of the substrate and local structures of the template for stability of amyloid structures. Detailed structures of αSyn and Tau amyloids are excellent models of pathogenic amyloids, including PrPSc, to elucidate strain diversity and pathogenic mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-synuclein; tau; amyloid; prion; prion protein; strain diversity; molecular dynamics simulation; secondary structure prediction; β-arch; in-register parallel β-sheet α-synuclein; tau; amyloid; prion; prion protein; strain diversity; molecular dynamics simulation; secondary structure prediction; β-arch; in-register parallel β-sheet
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Taguchi, Y.; Otaki, H.; Nishida, N. Mechanisms of Strain Diversity of Disease-Associated in-Register Parallel β-Sheet Amyloids and Implications About Prion Strains. Viruses 2019, 11, 110.

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