Next Article in Journal
Emerging Connections of S1P-Metabolizing Enzymes with Host Defense and Immunity During Virus Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Insights into Innate Sensing of Prototype Foamy Viruses in Myeloid Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Combining Viral Genetics and Statistical Modeling to Improve HIV-1 Time-of-Infection Estimation towards Enhanced Vaccine Efficacy Assessment
Open AccessArticle

Exploring HIV-1 Transmission Dynamics by Combining Phylogenetic Analysis and Infection Timing

1
Aids Reference Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Aids Reference Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Unit, Scientific Institute of Public Health Sciensano, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
4
Aids Reference Laboratory, Medical Microbiology Unit, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
5
Aids Reference Laboratory, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
6
HIV/STD Reference Laboratory, Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
7
Aids Reference Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St. Pierre, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
8
Aids Reference Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
9
Aids Reference Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
10
Aids Reference Laboratory, University Hospital Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
11
Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121096
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Molecular Epidemiology for Prevention)
HIV-1 pol sequences obtained through baseline drug resistance testing of patients newly diagnosed between 2013 and 2017 were analyzed for genetic similarity. For 927 patients the information on genetic similarity was combined with demographic data and with information on the recency of infection. Overall, 48.3% of the patients were genetically linked with 11.4% belonging to a pair and 36.9% involved in a cluster of ≥3 members. The percentage of early diagnosed (≤4 months after infection) was 28.6%. Patients of Belgian origin were more frequently involved in transmission clusters (49.7% compared to 15.3%) and diagnosed earlier (37.4% compared to 12.2%) than patients of Sub-Saharan African origin. Of the infections reported to be locally acquired, 69.5% were linked (14.1% paired and 55.4% in a cluster). Equal parts of early and late diagnosed individuals (59.9% and 52.4%, respectively) were involved in clusters. The identification of a genetically linked individual for the majority of locally infected patients suggests a high rate of diagnosis in this population. Diagnosis however is often delayed for >4 months after infection increasing the opportunities for onward transmission. Prevention of local infection should focus on earlier diagnosis and protection of the still uninfected members of sexual networks with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected members. View Full-Text
Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); transmission dynamics; transmission networks and clusters; molecular epidemiology; phylogenetic analysis; prevention human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); transmission dynamics; transmission networks and clusters; molecular epidemiology; phylogenetic analysis; prevention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Verhofstede, C.; Mortier, V.; Dauwe, K.; Callens, S.; Deblonde, J.; Dessilly, G.; Delforge, M.-L.; Fransen, K.; Sasse, A.; Stoffels, K.; Van Beckhoven, D.; Vanroye, F.; Vaira, D.; Vancutsem, E.; Van Laethem, K. Exploring HIV-1 Transmission Dynamics by Combining Phylogenetic Analysis and Infection Timing. Viruses 2019, 11, 1096.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop