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Codon Usage in the Iflaviridae Family Is Not Diverse Though the Family Members Are Isolated from Diverse Host Taxa

College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
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Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121087
Received: 28 September 2019 / Revised: 17 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
All iflavirus members belong to the unique genus, Iflavirus, of the family, Iflaviridae. The host taxa and sequence identities of these viruses are diverse. A codon usage bias, maintained by a balance between selection, mutation, and genetic drift, exists in a wide variety of organisms. We characterized the codon usage patterns of 44 iflavirus genomes that were isolated from the classes, Insecta, Arachnida, Mammalia, and Malacostraca. Iflaviruses lack a strong codon usage bias when they are evaluated using an effective number of codons. The odds ratios of the majority of dinucleotides are within the normal range. However, the dinucleotides at the 1st–2nd codon positions are more biased than those at the 2nd–3rd codon positions. Plots of effective numbers of codons, relative neutrality analysis, and PR2 bias analysis all indicate that selection pressure dominates mutations in shaping codon usage patterns in the family, Iflaviridae. When these viruses were grouped into their host taxa, we found that the indices, including the nucleotide composition, effective number of codons, relative synonymous codon usage, and the influencing factors behind the codon usage patterns, all show that there are non-significant differences between the six host-taxa-groups. Our results disagree with our assumption that diverse viruses should possess diverse codon usage patterns, suggesting that the nucleotide composition and codon usage in the family, Iflaviridae, are not host taxa-specific signatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iflavirus; Nucleotide composition; Codon bias; Preferred codons; Selection pressure Iflavirus; Nucleotide composition; Codon bias; Preferred codons; Selection pressure
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Shi, S.-L.; Xia, R.-X. Codon Usage in the Iflaviridae Family Is Not Diverse Though the Family Members Are Isolated from Diverse Host Taxa. Viruses 2019, 11, 1087.

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