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Viral Innate Immune Evasion and the Pathogenesis of Emerging RNA Virus Infections
Open AccessArticle

Novel Antiviral Activities of Obatoclax, Emetine, Niclosamide, Brequinar, and Homoharringtonine

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7028 Trondheim, Norway
Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu 50090, Estonia
Applied Molecular Virology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur Korea, 696 Sampyung-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488, Korea
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology, Umeå University, 90185 Umeå, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 964;
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Emerging Viral Infections)
Viruses are the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. Repurposing existing antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. Here, we identified novel activities of obatoclax and emetine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), echovirus 1 (EV1), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated novel activities of emetine against influenza A virus (FLUAV), niclosamide against HSV-2, brequinar against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), and homoharringtonine against EV1. Our findings may expand the spectrum of indications of these safe-in-man agents and reinforce the arsenal of available antiviral therapeutics pending the results of further in vitro and in vivo tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; broad-spectrum antiviral; antiviral agent; drug target; systems biology virus; broad-spectrum antiviral; antiviral agent; drug target; systems biology
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Andersen, P.I.; Krpina, K.; Ianevski, A.; Shtaida, N.; Jo, E.; Yang, J.; Koit, S.; Tenson, T.; Hukkanen, V.; Anthonsen, M.W.; Bjoras, M.; Evander, M.; Windisch, M.P.; Zusinaite, E.; Kainov, D.E. Novel Antiviral Activities of Obatoclax, Emetine, Niclosamide, Brequinar, and Homoharringtonine. Viruses 2019, 11, 964.

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