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Open AccessArticle

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Culicoides Snapshots

1
ONCFS, research department, wildlife diseases unit, 78610 Le Perray-en-Yvelines, France, [email protected] (S.R.)
2
CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France, [email protected] (C.G.)
3
ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, F-34398 Montpellier, France
4
IAV Hassan II, UR MIMC, 10100 Rabat, Morocco
5
UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d’Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France, [email protected] (C.V.)
6
National hunters Federation, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
7
IPPTS, Université de Strasbourg, EA 4438, 67000 Strasbourg, France
8
USC Vecpar, ANSES-LSA, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, SFR Cap Santé, Faculté de Pharmacie, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, EA 4688, 51096 Reims, France, [email protected]
9
Regional farmers sanitary support, Region Centre, 36000 Chateauroux, France
10
Veterinary diagnosis laboratory, 05000 Gap, France
11
Regional natural park of Corsica, 20250 Corte, France
12
ONCFS, research department, wild ungulates unit, 55000 Bar-le-Duc, France
13
Veterinary diagnosis laboratory, 64150 Lagore, France
14
Veterinary practice «clinique vétérinaire des trois sources», 21320 Pouilly-en-Auxois, France
15
National Domain of Chambord, Forest direction, 41250 Chambord, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100903
Received: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a Culicoides-borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008–2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared Culicoides communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). Culicoides diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France. View Full-Text
Keywords: arboviruses; vector-borne disease; wildlife; neutralizing antibodies; Europe arboviruses; vector-borne disease; wildlife; neutralizing antibodies; Europe
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rossi, S.; Balenghien, T.; Viarouge, C.; Faure, E.; Zanella, G.; Sailleau, C.; Mathieu, B.; Delécolle, J.-C.; Ninio, C.; Garros, C.; Gardès, L.; Tholoniat, C.; Ariston, A.; Gauthier, D.; Mondoloni, S.; Barboiron, A.; Pellerin, M.; Gibert, P.; Novella, C.; Barbier, S.; Guillaumat, E.; Zientara, S.; Vitour, D.; Bréard, E. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Culicoides Snapshots. Viruses 2019, 11, 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100903

AMA Style

Rossi S, Balenghien T, Viarouge C, Faure E, Zanella G, Sailleau C, Mathieu B, Delécolle J-C, Ninio C, Garros C, Gardès L, Tholoniat C, Ariston A, Gauthier D, Mondoloni S, Barboiron A, Pellerin M, Gibert P, Novella C, Barbier S, Guillaumat E, Zientara S, Vitour D, Bréard E. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Culicoides Snapshots. Viruses. 2019; 11(10):903. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rossi, Sophie; Balenghien, Thomas; Viarouge, Cyril; Faure, Eva; Zanella, Gina; Sailleau, Corinne; Mathieu, Bruno; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Ninio, Camille; Garros, Claire; Gardès, Laëtitia; Tholoniat, Christophe; Ariston, Agnès; Gauthier, Dominique; Mondoloni, Stevan; Barboiron, Aurélie; Pellerin, Maryline; Gibert, Philippe; Novella, Corinne; Barbier, Stéphane; Guillaumat, Etienne; Zientara, Stéphan; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel. 2019. "Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Culicoides Snapshots" Viruses 11, no. 10: 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100903

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