Next Article in Journal
Swine Influenza Virus Induces RIPK1/DRP1-Mediated Interleukin-1 Beta Production
Previous Article in Journal
Neutralizing Epitopes and Residues Mediating the Potential Antigenic Drift of the Hemagglutinin-Esterase Protein of Influenza C Virus
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 418;

Xenotropic Mouse Gammaretroviruses Isolated from Pre-Leukemic Tissues Include a Recombinant

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892-0460, USA
Current address: Qiagen, Germantown, MD 20874, USA.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3677 KB, uploaded 9 August 2018]   |  


Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic host range, the X-MLVs are also present in the pre-leukemic tissues. We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. AKR40 resembles the active X-ERV Bxv1, while AKR6 has a Bxv1-like backbone with substitutions that alter the long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer and the envelope (env). AKR6 has a modified xenotropic host range, and its Env residue changes all lie outside of the domain that governs the receptor choice. The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. This suggests that AKR6 is the product of one, not two, recombination events. Xmv67 originated in the Asian mice. These data indicate that the recombinant X-MLVs that can be generated during lymphomagenesis, describe a novel X-ERV subtype found in the AKR genome, but not in the C57BL/6 reference genome, and identify residues in the envelope C-terminus that may influence the host range. View Full-Text
Keywords: recombinant retrovirus; xenotropic gammaretrovirus; endogenous retroviruses; retroviral origins recombinant retrovirus; xenotropic gammaretrovirus; endogenous retroviruses; retroviral origins

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bamunusinghe, D.; Skorski, M.; Buckler-White, A.; Kozak, C.A. Xenotropic Mouse Gammaretroviruses Isolated from Pre-Leukemic Tissues Include a Recombinant. Viruses 2018, 10, 418.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top