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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070381

Interactions of Human Dermal Dendritic Cells and Langerhans Cells Treated with Hyalomma Tick Saliva with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

1
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0610, USA
2
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Marmara University, 34722 Kadiköy/Istanbul, Turkey
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current Address: CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, 5 Portarlington Road, East Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Abstract

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is one the most important and wide spread tick-borne viruses. Very little is known about the transmission from the tick and the early aspects of pathogenesis. Here, we generate human cutaneous antigen presenting cells—dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells—from umbilical cord progenitor cells. In order to mimic the environment created during tick feeding, tick salivary gland extract was generated from semi-engorged Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Our findings indicate that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are susceptible and permissive to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, however, to different degrees. Infection leads to cell activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion, although these responses vary between the different cell types. Hyalomma marginatum salivary gland extract had minimal effect on cell responses, with some synergy with viral infection with respect to cytokine secretion. However, salivary gland extract appeared to inhibit antigen presenting cells (APCs) migration. Based on the findings here we hypothesize that human dermal dendritic cells and Langerhans cells serve as early target cells. Rather affecting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus replication, tick saliva likely immunomodulates and inhibits migration of these APCs from the feeding site. View Full-Text
Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; Hyalomma marginatum; human cutaneous immune response; Langerhans cells; dermal dendritic cells; tick-borne virus; tick-virus-host interface Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; Hyalomma marginatum; human cutaneous immune response; Langerhans cells; dermal dendritic cells; tick-borne virus; tick-virus-host interface
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rodriguez, S.E.; McAuley, A.J.; Gargili, A.; Bente, D.A. Interactions of Human Dermal Dendritic Cells and Langerhans Cells Treated with Hyalomma Tick Saliva with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus. Viruses 2018, 10, 381.

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