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Viruses 2018, 10(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060336

Harnessing T Follicular Helper Cell Responses for HIV Vaccine Development

1
Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) and University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada
2
Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [693 KB, uploaded 19 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) capable of recognizing a broad range of viral strains to non-human primates has led to protection from infection with chimeric SIV/HIV virus (SHIV). This data suggests that generating protective antibody responses could be an effective strategy for an HIV vaccine. However, classic vaccine approaches have failed so far to induce such protective antibodies in HIV vaccine trials. HIV-specific bNAbs identified in natural infection show high levels of somatic hypermutations, demonstrating that they underwent extensive affinity maturation. It is likely that to gain ability to recognize diverse viral strains, vaccine-induced humoral responses will also require complex, iterative maturation. T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are a specialized CD4+ T cell subset that provides help to B cells in the germinal center for the generation of high-affinity and long-lasting humoral responses. It is therefore probable that the quality and quantity of Tfh responses upon vaccination will impact development of bNAbs. Here, we review studies that advanced our understanding of Tfh differentiation, function and regulation. We discuss correlates of Tfh responses and bNAb development in natural HIV infection. Finally, we highlight recent strategies to optimize Tfh responses upon vaccination and their impact on prophylactic HIV vaccine research. View Full-Text
Keywords: CD4 T cell help; T follicular helper cells (Tfh); B cells; antibody; broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb); HIV; vaccine CD4 T cell help; T follicular helper cells (Tfh); B cells; antibody; broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb); HIV; vaccine
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Niessl, J.; Kaufmann, D.E. Harnessing T Follicular Helper Cell Responses for HIV Vaccine Development. Viruses 2018, 10, 336.

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