Next Article in Journal
Identification and Characterization of Type IV Pili as the Cellular Receptor of Broad Host Range Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteriophages DLP1 and DLP2
Next Article in Special Issue
Lipid Composition but Not Curvature Is the Determinant Factor for the Low Molecular Mobility Observed on the Membrane of Virus-Like Vesicles
Previous Article in Journal
Harnessing T Follicular Helper Cell Responses for HIV Vaccine Development
Previous Article in Special Issue
Live-Cell Imaging of Early Steps of Single HIV-1 Infection
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 337;

Visualizing Viral Infection In Vivo by Multi-Photon Intravital Microscopy

Max von Pettenkofer Institute & Gene Center, Virology, National Reference Center for Retroviruses, Faculty of Medicine, LMU München, 80336 Munich, Germany
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Imaging to the Study of Virus Replication)
Full-Text   |   PDF [856 KB, uploaded 20 June 2018]   |  


Viral pathogens have adapted to the host organism to exploit the cellular machinery for virus replication and to modulate the host cells for efficient systemic dissemination and immune evasion. Much of our knowledge of the effects that virus infections have on cells originates from in vitro imaging studies using experimental culture systems consisting of cell lines and primary cells. Recently, intravital microscopy using multi-photon excitation of fluorophores has been applied to observe virus dissemination and pathogenesis in real-time under physiological conditions in living organisms. Critical steps during viral infection and pathogenesis could be studied by direct visualization of fluorescent virus particles, virus-infected cells, and the immune response to viral infection. In this review, I summarize the latest research on in vivo studies of viral infections using multi-photon intravital microscopy (MP-IVM). Initially, the underlying principle of multi-photon microscopy is introduced and experimental challenges during microsurgical animal preparation and fluorescent labeling strategies for intravital imaging are discussed. I will further highlight recent studies that combine MP-IVM with optogenetic tools and transcriptional analysis as a powerful approach to extend the significance of in vivo imaging studies of viral pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: intravital microscopy; multi-photon; virus infection; HIV; murine leukemia virus; MLV; pseudorabies virus; PRV intravital microscopy; multi-photon; virus infection; HIV; murine leukemia virus; MLV; pseudorabies virus; PRV

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sewald, X. Visualizing Viral Infection In Vivo by Multi-Photon Intravital Microscopy. Viruses 2018, 10, 337.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top