Next Article in Journal
Human-Like Neutralizing Antibodies Protect Mice from Aerosol Exposure with Western Equine Encephalitis Virus
Next Article in Special Issue
Paneth Cells during Viral Infection and Pathogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Constructing TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 Model Tumor Cells to Evaluate the Anti-Tumor Effects of LMP2-Related Vaccines
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stem Cell-Derived Models of Viral Infections in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Open AccessReview

Enteric Virome Sensing—Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity

Institute for Immunology, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Großhaderner Str. 9, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040146
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses–Bacteria Interactions in the Gut)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: dendritic cells; macrophages; mononuclear phagocytes; intestinal epithelial cells; type I interferon; intestine; Toll-like receptors; RIG-I-like receptors; microbiome; enteric innate immunity dendritic cells; macrophages; mononuclear phagocytes; intestinal epithelial cells; type I interferon; intestine; Toll-like receptors; RIG-I-like receptors; microbiome; enteric innate immunity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Metzger, R.N.; Krug, A.B.; Eisenächer, K. Enteric Virome Sensing—Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity. Viruses 2018, 10, 146.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop