Next Article in Journal
Treatment of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris Stumps with Urea and Phlebiopsis gigantea for Control of Heterobasidion
Next Article in Special Issue
Whitebark Pine in the Northern Cascades: Tracking the Effects of Blister Rust on Population Health in North Cascades National Park Service Complex and Mount Rainier National Park
Previous Article in Journal
Ecoregional Patterns of Spruce Budworm—Wildfire Interactions in Central Canada’s Forests
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine) in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2018, 9(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9030138

Ten Years of Monitoring Illustrates a Cascade of Effects of White Pine Blister Rust and Focuses Whitebark Pine Restoration in the Canadian Rocky and Columbia Mountains

1
Conservation Biologist, Parks Canada Agency, Jasper National Park, Jasper, AB T0E 1E0, Canada
2
Resource Manager, Alberta Environment and Parks, Calgary, AB T3L 1S4, Canada
3
Vegetation and Restoration Specialist, Parks Canada Agency, Waterton Lakes National Park, Waterton Park, AB T0K 2M0, Canada
4
Fire and Vegetation Specialist, Parks Canada Agency, Kootenay, Yoho and Lake Louise Field Unit, Radium, BC V0A 1M0, Canada
5
Fire and Vegetation Specialist, Parks Canada Agency, Banff Field Unit, Banff, AB T1L1K2, Canada
6
Scientist Emeritus, Parks Canada Agency, Waterton Lakes National Park, Waterton Park, AB T0K 2M0, Canada
7
A/Ecologist Team Lead, Parks Canada Agency, Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Park, Revelstoke, BC V0E 2S0, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Restoration of Whitebark Pine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [12136 KB, uploaded 14 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Whitebark pine forests are declining due to infection by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetle, combined with the effects of climate change and fire suppression. The Canadian Rocky and Columbia Mountains represent a large portion of the whitebark range; a vast area, exemplifying the need for knowledge about whitebark pine stands to target restoration. The aim of our work was to identify variables predicting live tree infection, seedling infection, canopy kill, mortality, and regeneration across this region, and present the results in spatially-explicit formats to assist land managers with restoration. Live tree and seedling infection by white pine blister rust increased over the last decade and cascading effects of the disease are intensifying, including canopy kill and mortality. We show that large diameter trees are more likely to be infected, and the highest infection rates are in southern and western areas. The conditions for seedling infection are more strongly influenced by fine-scale climatic conditions than for trees. Areas with low regeneration are: (1) the dry east slopes where live tree infection is low; and (2) where live tree infection rates are high, suggesting that canopy kill and mortality are influencing regeneration. Results highlight where to target restoration and coordinate across boundaries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinus albicaulis; Cronartium ribicola; whitebark pine; white pine blister rust; exotic pathogen; restoration; Canadian Rocky Mountains; British Columbia; Alberta; endangered species Pinus albicaulis; Cronartium ribicola; whitebark pine; white pine blister rust; exotic pathogen; restoration; Canadian Rocky Mountains; British Columbia; Alberta; endangered species
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shepherd, B.; Jones, B.; Sissons, R.; Cochrane, J.; Park, J.; Smith, C.M.; Stafl, N. Ten Years of Monitoring Illustrates a Cascade of Effects of White Pine Blister Rust and Focuses Whitebark Pine Restoration in the Canadian Rocky and Columbia Mountains. Forests 2018, 9, 138.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top