Next Article in Journal
Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Multiple Vegetation Covers on Surface Runoff and Sediment Yield in the Small Basin of Nverzhai, Hunan Province, China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact Assessment of Ozone Absorbed through Stomata on Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Japanese Deciduous Forest Trees: Implications for Ozone Mitigation Policies
Open AccessArticle

Metabolite Composition of Paper Birch Buds after Eleven Growing Seasons of Exposure to Elevated CO2 and O3

1
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-70200 Kuopio, Finland
2
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland
4
All-Russian Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Moscow 117216, Grina 7, Russia
5
USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, 5985 Highway K, Rhinelander, WI 54501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030330
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 12 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change and Air Pollutants on Forest Tree Species)
Research Highlights: Long-term exposure of paper birch to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) modified metabolite content of over-wintering buds, but no evidence of reduced freezing tolerance was found. Background and Objectives: Atmospheric change may affect the metabolite composition of over-wintering buds and, in turn, impact growth onset and stress tolerance of perennial plant species in spring. Materials and Methods: Low molecular weight compounds of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) buds, including lipophilic, polar and phenolic compounds were analyzed, and freezing tolerance (FT) of the buds was determined prior to bud break after 11 growing seasons exposure of saplings to elevated concentrations of CO2 (target concentration 560 µL L−1) and O3 (target concentration 1.5 × ambient) at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment) facility. Results: The contents of lipophilic and phenolic compounds (but not polar compounds) were affected by elevated CO2 and elevated O3 in an interactive manner. Elevated O3 reduced the content of lipids and increased that of phenolic compounds under ambient CO2 by reallocating carbon from biosynthesis of terpenoids to that of phenolic acids. In comparison, elevated CO2 had only a minor effect on lipophilic and polar compounds, but it increased the content of phenolic compounds under ambient O3 by increasing the content of phenolic acids, while the content of flavonols was reduced. Conclusions: Based on the freezing test and metabolite data, there was no evidence of altered FT in the over-wintering buds. The impacts of the alterations of bud metabolite contents on the growth and defense responses of birches during early growth in spring need to be uncovered in future experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: Betula papyrifera; bud; carbon dioxide; frost hardiness; global change; metabolome; over-wintering; ozone Betula papyrifera; bud; carbon dioxide; frost hardiness; global change; metabolome; over-wintering; ozone
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Riikonen, J.; Kivimäenpää, M.; Ossipov, V.; Saunier, A.; Marquardt, P. Metabolite Composition of Paper Birch Buds after Eleven Growing Seasons of Exposure to Elevated CO2 and O3. Forests 2020, 11, 330.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop