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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Graphene on Larix olgensis Seedlings and Soil Properties of Haplic Cambisols in Northeast China

1
Key Laboratory of Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management-Ministry of Education, School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, 26 Hexing Road, Harbin 150040, China
2
Daqing Wanfang Economic Development Corporation, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163411, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2020, 11(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030258
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 27 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
We investigated the impacts of graphene application at different concentrations on the growth and physiological characteristics of Changbai larch (Larix olgensis A. Henry) seedlings and the chemical properties and enzyme activities of Haplic Cambisols under these seedlings. The aim is to evaluate the environmental effects of graphene on the afforestation species and the zonal forest soils of Northeast China. Seedlings receiving 0 (CK), 25, 50, 100, 250, or 500 mg L−1 graphene were incubated for 30, 40, or 50 days. Low concentrations (25–50 mg L−1) of graphene increased the dry masses of root, stem, and leaf; however, high concentrations (100–500 mg L−1) inhibited them. Compared with those under 0 mg L−1 graphene, the root length, surface area, volume, and average diameter all increased during the early stages of incubation (i.e., 30 and 40 days) under low concentration of graphene (<50 or 100 mg L−1) and decreased at higher graphene concentration (>100 mg L−1); at 50 days, they were significantly inhibited. At 30 days, graphene decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, as well as pigment, soluble protein, and proline contents, and the decline increased with increasing graphene concentration; at 40 and 50 days, the above parameters increased initially and then decreased, reaching a maximum at 50 mg L−1. The changes in relative conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide contents were the opposite of those in the physiological indexes mentioned above. Therefore, graphene caused different degrees of oxidative stress in L. olgensis seedlings. At 30 days, graphene generally increased the organic matter, hydrolytic nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium contents of Haplic Cambisols, but these parameters decreased at 40 and 50 days. Graphene generally decreased acid phosphatase, urease, dehydrogenase, and catalase activities. Therefore, when graphene reaches a certain content level in this soil, it may also affect nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. View Full-Text
Keywords: Graphene; Larix olgensis; Haplic Cambisols; soil enzyme activities; physiological effects; ecological environment effects Graphene; Larix olgensis; Haplic Cambisols; soil enzyme activities; physiological effects; ecological environment effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, J.; Cao, K.; Duan, C.; Luo, N.; Cui, X. Effects of Graphene on Larix olgensis Seedlings and Soil Properties of Haplic Cambisols in Northeast China. Forests 2020, 11, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030258

AMA Style

Song J, Cao K, Duan C, Luo N, Cui X. Effects of Graphene on Larix olgensis Seedlings and Soil Properties of Haplic Cambisols in Northeast China. Forests. 2020; 11(3):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Jinfeng; Cao, Kai; Duan, Chengwei; Luo, Na; Cui, Xiaoyang. 2020. "Effects of Graphene on Larix olgensis Seedlings and Soil Properties of Haplic Cambisols in Northeast China" Forests 11, no. 3: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/f11030258

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