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Open AccessArticle

The Assessment of Two Species of Soapberry as Resources for High-Quality Biodiesel Production with an Optimized Method of Ultrasound-Assisted Oil Extraction

1
The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Beijing 100093, China
3
Institute of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Forests 2020, 11(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11020212
Received: 5 January 2020 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
Biodiesel has many advantages, yet its high price has become the main obstacle to market acceptance. Selecting non-edible woody oil plant resources and optimizing the oil extraction process will contribute to the effective utilization of raw materials and development of the related biodiesel industry. This study presents a detailed evaluation of two Sapindus species (Sapindus delavayi (Franch.) Radlk. and Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) as promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. As ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is considered a green and efficient oil extraction method, the process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) in our study. The kernel oil yield of S. delavayi was up to 43.67% ± 0.16% under the optimized extraction conditions (the ultrasonic power was 109W, extracting at 65 °C for 25 min, and the liquid–solid ratio was 9 mL·g−1). The kernel oil yield of S. mukorossi was as high as 45.96% ± 0.21% under the optimized extraction conditions (the ultrasonic power was 114W, extracting at 68 °C for 26 min, and the liquid–solid ratio was 9 mL·g−1). The fatty acid profiles of S. delavayi and S. mukorossi kernel oils showed a high percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (74.91% and 76.32%, respectively) and a low percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (11.11% and 7.83%, respectively) and saturated fatty acids (13.98% and 15.85%, respectively). Most of the properties of the two biodiesels conformed to EN 14214:2014, ASTM D6751–2018 and GB 25199–2017 standards, except for oxidation stability. In general, the results provided the optimized extraction method using ultrasound for the two species oil extraction and proved that the two kernel oils are potentially useful feedstocks for high-quality and low-cost biodiesel production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sapindus delavayi; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; fatty acid profiles; biodiesel properties Sapindus delavayi; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology; fatty acid profiles; biodiesel properties
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Zhang, Y.-Q.; Jin, L.; Duan, J.; Zhao, G.-C.; Xu, Y.-Y.; Liu, J.-M.; Jia, L.-M.; Hao, Y.-B.; Su, S.-C. The Assessment of Two Species of Soapberry as Resources for High-Quality Biodiesel Production with an Optimized Method of Ultrasound-Assisted Oil Extraction. Forests 2020, 11, 212.

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