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Open AccessArticle

Mesoporous Acidic Catalysts Synthesis from Dual-Stage and Rising Co-Current Gasification Char: Application for FAME Production from Waste Cooking Oil

1
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Universita 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 00000, UAE
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Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
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Center of Excellence in Catalysis for Bioenergy and Renewable Chemicals (CBRC), Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Laboratoire de Recherche LR18ES08, Chemistry Department, Science College, Tunis El Manar University, Tunis 2092, Tunisia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040871 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysts for Energy and Environmental Applications)
The main purpose of this work is to investigate the application options of the char produced from gasification plants. Two promising mesoporous acidic catalysts were synthesized using char as a support material. Two char samples were collected from either a dual-stage or a rising co-current biomass gasification plant. The catalysts produced from both gasification char samples were characterized for their physiochemical and morphological properties using N2 physorption measurement, total acidity evaluation through TPD-NH3, functional groups analysis by FT-IR, and morphology determination via FESEM. Results revealed that the dual-stage char-derived mesoporous catalyst (DSC-SO4) with higher specific surface area and acidic properties provided higher catalytic activity for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production from waste cooking oil (WCO) than the mesoporous catalyst obtained from char produced by rising co-current gasification (RCC-SO4). Furthermore, the effects of methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1–15:1), catalyst concentration (1–5 wt.% of oil), and reaction time (30–150 min) were studied while keeping the transesterification temperature constant at 65 °C. The optimal reaction conditions for the transesterification of WCO were 4 wt.% catalyst concentration, 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 90 min operating time. The optimized reaction conditions resulted in FAME conversions of 97% and 83% over DSC-SO4 and RCC-SO4 catalysts, respectively. The char-based catalysts show excellent reusability, since they could be reused six times without any modification. View Full-Text
Keywords: dual-stage gasification char; rising co-current gasification char; post-sulfonation; characterization; transesterification; biodiesel dual-stage gasification char; rising co-current gasification char; post-sulfonation; characterization; transesterification; biodiesel
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Ahmad, J.; Rashid, U.; Patuzzi, F.; Alamoodi, N.; Choong, T.S.Y.; Soltani, S.; Ngamcharussrivichai, C.; Nehdi, I.A.; Baratieri, M. Mesoporous Acidic Catalysts Synthesis from Dual-Stage and Rising Co-Current Gasification Char: Application for FAME Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Materials 2020, 13, 871.

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