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Article

Processing and Formulation Optimization of Mandarin Essential Oil-Loaded Emulsions Developed by Microfluidization

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Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Sevilla c/Virgen de África 7, E41011 Sevilla, Spain
2
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Sevilla c/P. García González 1, E41012 Sevilla, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163486
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
Emulsions can be used as delivery systems for bioactive ingredients for their incorporation in food products. Essential oils are natural compounds found in plants that present antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the main goal of this work was to develop emulsions, containing mandarin essential oil stabilized by two food-grade surfactants and guar gum, and to evaluate their physical stability. The initial droplet size of emulsions developed by microfluidization was optimized, obtaining diameters below one micron regardless of the processing conditions. However, the emulsion processed at 25,000 psi and one pass exhibited the lowest mean droplet sizes and polidispersity, and therefore, a higher stability. Different ratios of Tween 80 and Span 80 were assessed as stabilizers. Results obtained indicated that the ratio of surfactants had a significant effect on the mean droplet sizes, physical stability, and rheological properties. Thus, we found that the optimum ratio of surfactants was 75/25 (Tween80/Span80) on account of the lowest droplet mean diameters, lack of coalescence, and a low creaming rate. The rheological characterization of the stable emulsions showed a shear thinning flow behavior, and G″ (loss modulus) values higher than G′ (storage modulus) values, in all the frequency range. The rheological behavior may be governed by the guar gum, which was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This research can be considered as the starting point for future applications of mandarin essential oil in emulsions, which can be incorporated in products as food preservatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsion; guar gum; mandarin essential oil; microfluidization; rheology emulsion; guar gum; mandarin essential oil; microfluidization; rheology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos, J.; Calero, N.; Trujillo-Cayado, L.A.; Martín-Piñero, M.J.; Muñoz, J. Processing and Formulation Optimization of Mandarin Essential Oil-Loaded Emulsions Developed by Microfluidization. Materials 2020, 13, 3486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163486

AMA Style

Santos J, Calero N, Trujillo-Cayado LA, Martín-Piñero MJ, Muñoz J. Processing and Formulation Optimization of Mandarin Essential Oil-Loaded Emulsions Developed by Microfluidization. Materials. 2020; 13(16):3486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163486

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santos, Jenifer, Nuria Calero, Luis A. Trujillo-Cayado, María J. Martín-Piñero, and José Muñoz. 2020. "Processing and Formulation Optimization of Mandarin Essential Oil-Loaded Emulsions Developed by Microfluidization" Materials 13, no. 16: 3486. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163486

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