Next Article in Journal
Hybrid Perovskites Depth Profiling with Variable-Size Argon Clusters and Monatomic Ions Beams
Next Article in Special Issue
Modification of Pyrolytic Oil from Waste Tyres as a Promising Method for Light Fuel Production
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental and Modeling Study of the Evolution of Mechanical Properties of PAN-Based Carbon Fibers at Elevated Temperatures
Previous Article in Special Issue
Application of Crumb Rubber in Cement-Matrix Composite
Open AccessArticle

Implications of the Use of Silica as Active Filler in Passenger Car Tire Compounds on Their Recycling Options

1
Elastomer Technology and Engineering (ETE), Department of Solids, Surfaces and Systems (MS3), University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Professorship for Polymer Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Windesheim, 8017 CA Zwolle, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050725
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rubber Recycling)
Tires are an important vehicle component, as car handling, safety and fuel economy depend for a major part on the tire composition and construction. As a consequence, tires are improved continuously. The most prominent improvement in the recent past was the use of a silica-silane filler system in passenger car tread compounds, instead of traditionally used carbon black. For recycling and re-use of end-of-life car tire rubber one of the most promising recycling methods is devulcanization: re-plasticizing the vulcanized rubber by selectively breaking the sulfur bridges between the polymer molecules. In the present paper, the influence of silica, which is present in the passenger car tires granulate, on both devulcanization and subsequent revulcanization, is investigated. In a step-wise approach it is shown that the presence of silica influences both devulcanization and revulcanization. The best tensile strength of the revulcanizate, using a carbon-black-based revulcanization formulation, was 5 MPa. This could be improved to 6.5 MPa by using 2.8 phr of 1,3-DiPhenylGuanidine (DPG) in the revulcanization formulation. After addition of a silanization step during revulcanization by adding 3.2 phr bis[3-(TriEthoxySilyl)Propyl] Tetrasulfide (TESPT), a silane, to the formulation, the tensile strength of the revulcanizate was further improved to 8 MPa. With these results it is shown that the silica in the granulate can be used to improve the revulcanization properties. To check the benefits of using pure tire tread material for the devulcanization and subsequent revulcanization, of both a carbon black and a silica-based virgin tread compound, it is shown that a tensile strength of the revulcanizate of 13 MPa can be reached. This shows the potential of devulcanized rubber when the various tire components are separated before whole car tire material is granulated as the beginning of the recycling. View Full-Text
Keywords: de-vulcanization; tire; recycling; car tire; sustainable; silica de-vulcanization; tire; recycling; car tire; sustainable; silica
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

van Hoek, J.W.; Heideman, G.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Dierkes, W.K.; Blume, A. Implications of the Use of Silica as Active Filler in Passenger Car Tire Compounds on Their Recycling Options. Materials 2019, 12, 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050725

AMA Style

van Hoek JW, Heideman G, Noordermeer JWM, Dierkes WK, Blume A. Implications of the Use of Silica as Active Filler in Passenger Car Tire Compounds on Their Recycling Options. Materials. 2019; 12(5):725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050725

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Hoek, Johannes W.; Heideman, Geert; Noordermeer, Jacques W.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Blume, Anke. 2019. "Implications of the Use of Silica as Active Filler in Passenger Car Tire Compounds on Their Recycling Options" Materials 12, no. 5: 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050725

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop