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Open AccessArticle

Multiresponse Optimization and Environmental Analysis in Direct Recycling Hot Press Forging of Aluminum AA6061

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Sustainable Manufacturing and Recycling Technology, Advanced Manufacturing and Materials Center (SMART-AMMC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121918
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
Ecological manageability in manufacturing these days is a dire and exceptional issue and the principle concerns are identified with increasingly proficient utilization of energy and materials. Recycling can save a large amount greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in the case of aluminum. The parameter on the innovative technique on the direct recycling was investigated by employing design of experiments, via hot press forging process (DR-HPF). Thus, reutilizing of aluminum chips AA6061 with full factorial 32 design of experiment comprising a variety of working temperature and holding time were employed. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to outline the experiments towards evaluating the influences of the hot press forging parameters to the three responses; ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation to failure (ETF), and global warming potential (GWP). In conjunction with this, the environmental impacts associated with DR-HPF process are evaluated alongside the resultant conventional recycling (CR) by using re-melting route as indication. Experimental measurements, literature analysis and industrial data were merged to acquire the analysis of aluminum recycling life cycle. Clear conclusions were successfully drawn through the attained results on the outlook proposed by solid state direct recycling for the purpose of reducing the environmental effects by taking material and energy conservation as one of the most essential impacting factor. The global warming potential of a DR-HPF route gives a significant environmental impact where it is reduced up to 69.2% in comparison to the conventional (melting) routes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable manufacturing; direct metal recycling; hot press forging (HPF); aluminum AA6061; life cycle assessment (LCA); response surface methodology (RSM) sustainable manufacturing; direct metal recycling; hot press forging (HPF); aluminum AA6061; life cycle assessment (LCA); response surface methodology (RSM)
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Yusuf, N.K.; Lajis, M.A.; Ahmad, A. Multiresponse Optimization and Environmental Analysis in Direct Recycling Hot Press Forging of Aluminum AA6061. Materials 2019, 12, 1918.

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