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Materials 2018, 11(8), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081408

Sequential Production of Levulinic Acid and Porous Carbon Material from Cellulose

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Distributed Energy Systems, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
2
College of Mechanical Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
3
Engineering Research Center of None-food Biomass Efficient Pyrolysis and Utilization Technology of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Dongguan University of Technology, Donguan 523808, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials)
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Abstract

A sequential production of levulinic acid (LA) and porous carbon material (CM) from cellulose was conducted by a two-step process. The cellulose was first acid hydrolyzed, and the preferred reaction conditions required a severity factor of 4.0–4.5, in which the yields of LA, formic acid, and solid residue were 38 ± 3 wt%, 17 ± 3 wt%, and 15 ± 3 wt%, respectively. The solid residue was further used for CM preparation through pyrolysis, with or without ZnCl2 activation. The ZnCl2 activation promoted the formation of CMs with improved thermal stability, high surface area (1184–2510 m2/g), and excellent phenol adsorption capacity (136–172 mg/g). The used CM can be easily regenerated by a simple methanol Soxhlet extraction process, and a comparable phenol adsorption capacity of 97 mg/g was maintained for the 5th reusing. Finally, 100 g cellulose produced 40.5 g LA, 18.9 g formic acid and 8.5 g porous CM, with a total carbon utilization ratio reaching 74.4%. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose; levulinic acid; porous carbon material; pyrolysis; hydrolysis; adsorption cellulose; levulinic acid; porous carbon material; pyrolysis; hydrolysis; adsorption
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kang, S.; Pan, J.; Gu, G.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Tan, J.; Liu, G. Sequential Production of Levulinic Acid and Porous Carbon Material from Cellulose. Materials 2018, 11, 1408.

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