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The Components of Bone and What They Can Teach Us about Regeneration

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Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, #6-06 Immunos, Singapore 138648, Singapore
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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, Level 11, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119288, Singapore
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Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Department of Cell Biology-Inspired Tissue Engineering, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010014
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Substitute Materials)
The problem of bone regeneration has engaged both physicians and scientists since the beginning of medicine. Not only can bone heal itself following most injuries, but when it does, the regenerated tissue is often indistinguishable from healthy bone. Problems arise, however, when bone does not heal properly, or when new tissue is needed, such as when two vertebrae are required to fuse to stabilize adjacent spine segments. Despite centuries of research, such procedures still require improved therapeutic methods to be devised. Autologous bone harvesting and grafting is currently still the accepted benchmark, despite drawbacks for clinicians and patients that include limited amounts, donor site morbidity, and variable quality. The necessity for an alternative to this “gold standard” has given rise to a bone-graft and substitute industry, with its central conundrum: what is the best way to regenerate bone? In this review, we dissect bone anatomy to summarize our current understanding of its constituents. We then look at how various components have been employed to improve bone regeneration. Evolving strategies for bone regeneration are then considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone healing; fracture healing; bone tissue engineering; bone anatomy bone healing; fracture healing; bone tissue engineering; bone anatomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Le, B.Q.; Nurcombe, V.; Cool, S.M.; Van Blitterswijk, C.A.; De Boer, J.; LaPointe, V.L.S. The Components of Bone and What They Can Teach Us about Regeneration. Materials 2018, 11, 14.

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