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Materials 2017, 10(11), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10111295

Reduced Graphene Oxide on Nickel Foam for Supercapacitor Electrodes

1
Department of Physics, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
4
Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Abstract

The focus of this paper is the investigation of reduced graphene oxide (GO)/nickel foam (RGON) samples for use as supercapacitor electrodes. Nickel foam samples were soaked in a GO suspension and dried before being subjected to two different methods to remove oxygen. Atmospheric pressure annealed (APA) samples were treated with a varying number (10–18) of nitrogen plasma jet scans, where sample temperatures did not exceed 280 °C. Furnace annealed (FA) samples were processed in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon, at temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 900 °C. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) data indicated that the carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratio for APA samples was minimized at an intermediate number of plasma scans. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic data supported this finding. ESEM analysis from FA samples showed that with increasing temperatures of annealing, GO is transformed to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), with C:O ratios exceeding 35:1. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated the formation of RGO with an increasing annealing temperature until 800 °C, when oxygen reincorporation in the surface atomic layers becomes an issue. Supercapacitors, constructed using the FA samples, demonstrated performances that correlated with surface atomic layer optimization of the C:O ratio. View Full-Text
Keywords: RGO; nickel foam; atmospheric plasma; furnace processing; graphene; electrodes RGO; nickel foam; atmospheric plasma; furnace processing; graphene; electrodes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ramabadran, U.; Ryan, G.; Zhou, X.; Farhat, S.; Manciu, F.; Tong, Y.; Ayler, R.; Garner, G. Reduced Graphene Oxide on Nickel Foam for Supercapacitor Electrodes. Materials 2017, 10, 1295.

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