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Energies, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2014) , Pages 6825-7815

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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7794-7815; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117794
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3278 | PDF Full-text (2975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC) system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE), and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) [...] Read more.
A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC) system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE), and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC))
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Open AccessArticle
System Integration of the Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine: The Design of Turbine Blades with an Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet Generator
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7773-7793; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117773
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4236 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In designing a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade, system integration between the blade design and the performance test of the generator is important. This study shows the aerodynamic design of a HAWT blade operating with an axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator. An experimental [...] Read more.
In designing a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade, system integration between the blade design and the performance test of the generator is important. This study shows the aerodynamic design of a HAWT blade operating with an axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator. An experimental platform was built to measure the performance curves of the AFPM generator for the purpose of designing the turbine blade. An in-house simulation code was developed based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory and was used to lay out the geometric shape of the turbine blade, including the pitch angle and chord length at each section. This simulation code was combined with the two-dimensional (2D) airfoil data for predicting the aerodynamic performance of the designed blades. In addition, wind tunnel experiments were performed to verify the simulation results for the various operating conditions. By varying the rotational speeds at four wind speeds, the experimental and simulation results for the mechanical torques and powers presented good agreement. The mechanical power of the system, which maximizes at the best operating region, provided significant information for designing the HAWT blade. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics and Control of Lateral Tower Vibrations in Offshore Wind Turbines by Means of Active Generator Torque
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7746-7772; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117746
Received: 6 July 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4110 | PDF Full-text (2916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower [...] Read more.
Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower vibrations in offshore wind turbines using active generator torque. To implement the active control algorithm, both the mechanical and power electronic aspects have been taken into consideration. A 13-degrees-of-freedom aeroelastic wind turbine model with generator and pitch controllers is derived using the Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model displays important features of wind turbines, such as mixed moving frame and fixed frame-defined degrees-of-freedom, couplings of the tower-blade-drivetrain vibrations, as well as aerodynamic damping present in different modes of motions. The load transfer mechanisms from the drivetrain and the generator to the nacelle are derived, and the interaction between the generator torque and the lateral tower vibration are presented in a generalized manner. A three-dimensional rotational sampled turbulence field is generated and applied to the rotor, and the tower is excited by a first order wave load in the lateral direction. Next, a simple active control algorithm is proposed based on active generator torques with feedback from the measured lateral tower vibrations. A full-scale power converter configuration with a cascaded loop control structure is also introduced to produce the feedback control torque in real time. Numerical simulations have been carried out using data calibrated to the referential 5-MW NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) offshore wind turbine. Cases of drivetrains with a gearbox and direct drive to the generator are considered using the same time series for the wave and turbulence loadings. Results show that by using active generator torque control, lateral tower vibrations can be significantly mitigated for both gear-driven and direct-driven wind turbines, with modest influence on the smoothness of the power output from the generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle
A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7732-7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117732
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2627 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid [...] Read more.
Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind power systems. Fast fault detection can help the wind power systems maintain the DC-link voltage in a safe region. The proposed fault detection method is based on on-line adaptive parameter estimation. The performance of the proposed method is verified in comparison to the conventional voltage measurement method defined in the IEC 61400-21 standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Point Estimate Method for Voltage Unbalance Evaluation in Residential Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Small Wind Turbines
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7717-7731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117717
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2012 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Voltage unbalance (VU) in residential distribution networks (RDNs) is mainly caused by load unbalance in three phases, resulting from network configuration and load-variations. The increasing penetration of distributed generation devices, such as small wind turbines (SWTs), and their uneven distribution over the three [...] Read more.
Voltage unbalance (VU) in residential distribution networks (RDNs) is mainly caused by load unbalance in three phases, resulting from network configuration and load-variations. The increasing penetration of distributed generation devices, such as small wind turbines (SWTs), and their uneven distribution over the three phases have introduced difficulties in evaluating possible VU. This paper aims to provide a three-phase probabilistic power flow method, point estimate method to evaluate the VU. This method, considering the randomness of load switching in customers’ homes and time-variation in wind speed, is shown to be capable of providing a global picture of a network’s VU degree so that it can be used for fast evaluation. Applying the 2m + 1 scheme of the proposed method to a generic UK distribution network shows that a balanced SWT penetration over three phases reduces the VU of a RDN. Greater unbalance in SWT penetration results in higher voltage unbalance factor (VUF), and cause VUF in excess of the UK statutory limit of 1.3%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Performance Reduced Order Models for Wind Turbines with Full-Scale Converters Applied on Grid Interconnection Studies
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7694-7716; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117694
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3266 | PDF Full-text (1096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy production [...] Read more.
Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy production usually contains few high power unit generators; however, Wind Power Plants (WPPs) consist of dozens or hundreds of low-power units. Time domain simulations of WPPs may take too much time if detailed models are considered in such studies. This work discusses reduced order models used in interconnection studies of synchronous machines with full converter technology. The performance of all models is evaluated based on time domain simulations in the Simulink/MATLAB environment. A detailed model is described, and four reduced order models are compared using the performance index, Normalized Integral of Absolute Error (NIAE). Models are analyzed during wind speed variations and balanced voltage dip. During faults, WPPs must be able to supply reactive power to the grid, and this characteristic is analyzed. Using the proposed performance index, it is possible to conclude if a reduced order model is suitable to represent the WPPs dynamics on grid studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mine-Based Uranium Market Clearing Model
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7673-7693; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117673
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2274 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic analysis and market simulation tools are used to evaluate uranium (U) supply shocks, sale or purchase of uranium stockpiles, or market effects of new uranium mines or enrichment technologies. This work expands on an existing U market model that couples the market [...] Read more.
Economic analysis and market simulation tools are used to evaluate uranium (U) supply shocks, sale or purchase of uranium stockpiles, or market effects of new uranium mines or enrichment technologies. This work expands on an existing U market model that couples the market for primary U from uranium mines with those of secondary uranium, e.g., depleted uranium (DU) upgrading or highly enriched uranium (HEU) down blending, and enrichment services. This model accounts for the interdependence between the primary U supply on the U market price, the economic characteristics of each individual U mine, sources of secondary supply, and the U enrichment market. This work defines a procedure for developing an aggregate supply curve for primary uranium from marginal cost curves for individual firms (Uranium mines). Under this model, market conditions drive individual mines’ startup and short- and long-term shutdown decisions. It is applied to the uranium industry for the period 2010–2030 in order to illustrate the evolution of the front end markets under conditions of moderate growth in demand for nuclear fuel. The approach is applicable not only to uranium mines but also other facilities and reactors within the nuclear economy that may be modeled as independent, decision-making entities inside a nuclear fuel cycle simulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies)
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Open AccessReview
Metaheuristic Algorithms Applied to Bioenergy Supply Chain Problems: Theory, Review, Challenges, and Future
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7640-7672; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117640
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2934 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioenergy is a new source of energy that accounts for a substantial portion of the renewable energy production in many countries. The production of bioenergy is expected to increase due to its unique advantages, such as no harmful emissions and abundance. Supply-related problems [...] Read more.
Bioenergy is a new source of energy that accounts for a substantial portion of the renewable energy production in many countries. The production of bioenergy is expected to increase due to its unique advantages, such as no harmful emissions and abundance. Supply-related problems are the main obstacles precluding the increase of use of biomass (which is bulky and has low energy density) to produce bioenergy. To overcome this challenge, large-scale optimization models are needed to be solved to enable decision makers to plan, design, and manage bioenergy supply chains. Therefore, the use of effective optimization approaches is of great importance. The traditional mathematical methods (such as linear, integer, and mixed-integer programming) frequently fail to find optimal solutions for non-convex and/or large-scale models whereas metaheuristics are efficient approaches for finding near-optimal solutions that use less computational resources. This paper presents a comprehensive review by studying and analyzing the application of metaheuristics to solve bioenergy supply chain models as well as the exclusive challenges of the mathematical problems applied in the bioenergy supply chain field. The reviewed metaheuristics include: (1) population approaches, such as ant colony optimization (ACO), the genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and bee colony algorithm (BCA); and (2) trajectory approaches, such as the tabu search (TS) and simulated annealing (SA). Based on the outcomes of this literature review, the integrated design and planning of bioenergy supply chains problem has been solved primarily by implementing the GA. The production process optimization was addressed primarily by using both the GA and PSO. The supply chain network design problem was treated by utilizing the GA and ACO. The truck and task scheduling problem was solved using the SA and the TS, where the trajectory-based methods proved to outperform the population-based methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Saturated Adaptive Output-Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7620-7639; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117620
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2454 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are those nuclear fission reactors with electrical output powers of less than 300 MWe. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) has been seen as one of the best candidates for [...] Read more.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) are those nuclear fission reactors with electrical output powers of less than 300 MWe. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear plants with high safety-level and economical competitive power. Power-level control is crucial in providing grid-appropriation for all types of SMRs. Usually, there exists nonlinearity, parameter uncertainty and control input saturation in the SMR-based plant dynamics. Motivated by this, a novel saturated adaptive output-feedback power-level control of the MHTGR is proposed in this paper. This newly-built control law has the virtues of having relatively neat form, of being strong adaptive to parameter uncertainty and of being able to compensate control input saturation, which are given by constructing Lyapunov functions based upon the shifted-ectropies of neutron kinetics and reactor thermal-hydraulics, giving an online tuning algorithm for the controller parameters and proposing a control input saturation compensator respectively. It is proved theoretically that input-to-state stability (ISS) can be guaranteed for the corresponding closed-loop system. In order to verify the theoretical results, this new control strategy is then applied to the large-range power maneuvering control for the MHTGR of the HTR-PM plant. Numerical simulation results show not only the relationship between regulating performance and control input saturation bound but also the feasibility of applying this saturated adaptive control law practically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Exergy Destruction in Pipeline Flow of Surfactant-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7602-7619; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117602
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2487 | PDF Full-text (1449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exergy destruction in adiabatic pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions is investigated in five different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (oil droplets) concentration of the emulsions is varied from 0% to 55.14% vol. The emulsions are Newtonian in that the viscosity is independent of [...] Read more.
Exergy destruction in adiabatic pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions is investigated in five different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (oil droplets) concentration of the emulsions is varied from 0% to 55.14% vol. The emulsions are Newtonian in that the viscosity is independent of the shear rate. For a given emulsion and pipe diameter, the exergy destruction rate per unit pipe length increases linearly with the increase in the Reynolds number on a log-log scale in both laminar and turbulent regimes. However the slope in the turbulent regime is higher. The exergy destruction rate increases with the increase in the dispersed-phase concentration of emulsion and decreases with the increase in the pipe diameter. New models are developed for the prediction of exergy destruction rate in pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. The models are based on the single-phase flow equations. The experimental data on exergy destruction in pipeline flow of emulsions shows excellent agreement with the predictions of the proposed models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Thermal Behavior of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7586-7601; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117586
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3051 | PDF Full-text (1762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects of operating conditions on the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) module. The potential and current density distributions on the electrodes of an LIB cell are predicted as a function of discharge [...] Read more.
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the effects of operating conditions on the thermal behavior of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) module. The potential and current density distributions on the electrodes of an LIB cell are predicted as a function of discharge time based on the principle of charge conservation. By using the modeling results of the potential and current density distributions of the LIB cell, the non-uniform distribution of the heat generation rate in a single LIB cell within the module is calculated. Based on the heat generation rate in the single LIB cell determined as a function of the position on the electrode and time, a three-dimensional thermal modeling of an LIB module is performed to calculate the three-dimensional velocity, pressure, and temperature distributions within the LIB module as a function of time at various operating conditions. Thermal modeling of an LIB module is validated by the comparison between the experimental measurements and the modeling results. The effect of the cooling condition of the LIB module on the temperature rise of the LIB cells within the module and the uniformity of the distribution of the cell temperatures are analyzed quantitatively based on the modeling results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
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Open AccessArticle
Recycle Effect on Device Performance of Wire Mesh Packed Double-Pass Solar Air Heaters
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7568-7585; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117568
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Viewed by 2238 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new device for inserting an absorber plate to divide a flat-plate channel into two subchannels to conduct double-pass wire mesh packed operations was developed. The proposed wire mesh packed device improves the heat transfer efficiency substantially as compared that to flat-plate single-pass [...] Read more.
A new device for inserting an absorber plate to divide a flat-plate channel into two subchannels to conduct double-pass wire mesh packed operations was developed. The proposed wire mesh packed device improves the heat transfer efficiency substantially as compared that to flat-plate single-pass and double-pass operations using the same working dimensions, and the improvement of device performance was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Good agreement between the theoretical prediction and the measured values from the experimental results was achieved. Considerable heat transfer improvement was obtained employing wire mesh packed double-pass operations under the absorber plate with external recycle. The influences of recycle ratio on the heat transfer efficiency and the power consumption increase were also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7555-7567; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117555
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2309 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated [...] Read more.
The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Deterioration of Supercritical n-Decane in Horizontal Circular Tubes
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7535-7554; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117535
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2168 | PDF Full-text (2053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the regenerative cooling process of scramjet engines, in this paper, a numerical investigation on the supercritical convective heat transfer of n-decane in horizontal circular tubes was conducted, based on a complete set of conservation equations [...] Read more.
In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the regenerative cooling process of scramjet engines, in this paper, a numerical investigation on the supercritical convective heat transfer of n-decane in horizontal circular tubes was conducted, based on a complete set of conservation equations and the Renormalization group (RNG) k–ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment. The present study mainly focuses on the heat transfer deterioration (HTD) phenomenon, including the mechanism and critical conditions for the onset of HTD. Moreover, the applicability of some conventional heat transfer empirical correlations was analyzed and compared, thus providing guidance for the Nusselt number predictions in the cooling channels. Results indicate that under the compositive conditions of low pressure and high heat flux, two types of HTD phenomena could occur when the wall and bulk fluid temperatures are near the pseudo-critical temperature, owing to the abnormal distributions of near-wall turbulent kinetic energy and radial velocity, respectively. Increasing the pressure would effectively alleviate and eliminate the HTD. A comparison of numerical results with those obtained with different empirical expressions shows that the Bae-Kim expression provides the best agreement, especially when HTD occurs. Furthermore, a new correction for critical heat flux of HTD has been successfully developed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Recursive Solution for Power-Transmission Loss in DC-Powered Networks
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7519-7534; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117519
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 6 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Viewed by 2228 | PDF Full-text (1496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a recursive solution to the power-transmission loss in DC-powered networks. In such a network, the load cannot be modeled as a fixed equivalent resistance value, since the switching regulator may draw more or less current based on the actual supply [...] Read more.
This article presents a recursive solution to the power-transmission loss in DC-powered networks. In such a network, the load cannot be modeled as a fixed equivalent resistance value, since the switching regulator may draw more or less current based on the actual supply voltage to meet the power demand. Although the power-transmission loss itself is simply I2 RL, I, in turn, depends on the load’s supply voltage, which, in turn, depends on I, making it impossible to derive a closed-form solution by classical resistive network analysis in general. The proposed approach is to first derive a closed-form solution to I in the one-node topology using the quadratic formula. Next, we extend our solution to a locally daisy-chained (LDC) network, where the network is readily decomposable into stages, such that the solution combines the closed-form formula for the current stage with the recursive solution for the subsequent stages. We then generalize the LDC topology to trees. In practice, the solution converges quickly after a small number of iterations. It has been validated on real-life networks, such as power over controller area network (PoCAN). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7499-7518; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117499
Received: 2 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2582 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM) system in the future smart grid (SG). In this [...] Read more.
The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM) system in the future smart grid (SG). In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS) and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs) are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
CFD Study on Aerodynamic Power Output Changes with Inter-Turbine Spacing Variation for a 6 MW Offshore Wind Farm
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7483-7498; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117483
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2930 | PDF Full-text (1788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly [...] Read more.
This study examined the aerodynamic power output change of wind turbines with inter-turbine spacing variation for a 6 MW wind farm composed of three sets of 2 MW wind turbines using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The wind farm layout design is becoming increasingly important as the use of wind energy is steadily increasing. Among the many wind farm layout design parameters, the inter-turbine spacing is a key factor in the initial investment cost, annual energy production and maintenance cost. The inter-turbine spacing should be determined to maximize the annual energy production and minimize the wake effect, turbulence effect and fatigue load during the service lifetime of wind turbines. Therefore, some compromise between the aerodynamic power output of wind turbines and the inter-turbine spacing is needed. An actuator disc model with the addition of a momentum source was not used, and instead, a full 3-dimensional model with a tower and nacelle was used for CFD analysis because of its great technical significance. The CFD analysis results, such as the aerodynamic power output, axial direction wind speed change, pressure drop across the rotor of wind turbine, and wind speed deficit due to the wake effect with inter-turbine spacing variation, were studied. The results of this study can be applied effectively to wind farm layout design and evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Future Vehicle Energy Demand in China Based on a Gompertz Function Method and Computable General Equilibrium Model
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7454-7482; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117454
Received: 6 September 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3072 | PDF Full-text (1279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP)-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP)-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The Gompertz function is estimated using historical data on vehicle development trends in North America, Pacific Rim and Europe to overcome the problem of insufficient long-running data on Chinese vehicle ownership. Results indicate that the number of projected vehicle stocks for 2050 is 300, 455 and 463 million for low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios respectively. Furthermore, the growth in China’s vehicle stock will increase beyond the inflection point of Gompertz curve by 2020, but will not reach saturation point during the period 2014–2050. Of major road vehicle categories, cars are the largest energy consumers, followed by trucks and buses. Growth in Chinese vehicle demand is primarily determined by per capita GDP. Vehicle saturation levels solely influence the shape of the Gompertz curve and population growth weakly affects vehicle demand. Projected total energy consumption of road vehicles in 2050 is 380, 575 and 586 million tonnes of oil equivalent for each scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Geothermal Modelling of the Mount Amiata Hydrothermal System in Italy
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7434-7453; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117434
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 6 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2849 | PDF Full-text (2298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we build a subsurface model that helps in visualizing and understanding the structural framework, geology and their interactions with the Mt. Amiata geothermal system. Modelling in 3D provides the possibility to interpolate the geometry of structures and is an effective [...] Read more.
In this paper we build a subsurface model that helps in visualizing and understanding the structural framework, geology and their interactions with the Mt. Amiata geothermal system. Modelling in 3D provides the possibility to interpolate the geometry of structures and is an effective way of understanding geological features. The 3D modelling approach appears to be crucial for further progress in the reconstruction of the assessment of the geothermal model of Mt. Amiata. Furthermore, this model is used as the basis of a 3D numerical thermo-fluid-dynamic model of the existing reservoir(s). The integration between borehole data and numerical modelling results allows reconstructing the temperature distribution in the subsoil of the Mt. Amiata area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Operation of Steam Turbines under Blade Failures during the Summer Peak Load Periods
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7415-7433; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117415
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
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Abstract
This paper presents a discussion of practical experience related to the study of a cogeneration system where one of the four steam units occurs a failure of the low-pressure blades during peak load times of the summer months in Taiwan in the year [...] Read more.
This paper presents a discussion of practical experience related to the study of a cogeneration system where one of the four steam units occurs a failure of the low-pressure blades during peak load times of the summer months in Taiwan in the year 2007. This study investigates various scenarios consisting of shutting down the damaged unit for repairs and having continued operation of the unit by removing the low-pressure blades and replacing the stationary blade ring with buffer boards. Based on the simulation results, the numerical model has reflected strong agreement with the critical decisions made to operate the damaged unit continuously in a time of the blade failure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Simulation of a CPV/T System Using the Finite Element Method
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7395-7414; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117395
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2421 | PDF Full-text (5403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is the determination of a concentrating thermo-photovoltaic (CPV/T) system dynamic model by means of the finite element method (FEM). The system consist of triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (indium-gallium phosphide/indium-gallium-arsenide/germanium) solar cells connected to a metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB) [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is the determination of a concentrating thermo-photovoltaic (CPV/T) system dynamic model by means of the finite element method (FEM). The system consist of triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (indium-gallium phosphide/indium-gallium-arsenide/germanium) solar cells connected to a metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB) placed on a coil circuit used for the thermal energy recovery. In particular, the main aim is to determine the fluid outlet temperature. It is evaluated corresponding both to a constant cell temperature equal to 120 °C, generally representing the maximum operating temperature, and to cell temperature values instantly variable with the direct normal irradiation (DNI). Hence, an accurate DNI analysis is realized adopting the Gordon-Reddy statistical model. Using an accurate electric model, the cell temperature and efficiency are determined together with the CPV/T module electric and thermal powers. Generally, the CPV system size is realized according to the user electric load demand and, then, it is important to evaluate the necessary minimum concentration ratio (Cmin), the limit of CPV system applicability, in order to determine the energy convenience profile. The fluid outlet temperature can be then obtained by the FEM analysis to verify if a CPV/T system can be used in solar heating and cooling applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7368-7394; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117368
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3831 | PDF Full-text (656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP) production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering [...] Read more.
The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP) production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC))
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Open AccessArticle
Design Optimization of Heat Wheels for Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7348-7367; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117348
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 13 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3425 | PDF Full-text (1745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due [...] Read more.
Air to air heat exchangers play a crucial role in mechanical ventilation equipment, due to the potential primary energy savings both in case of refurbishment of existing buildings or in case of new ones. In particular, interest in heat wheels is increasing due to their low pressure drop and high effectiveness. In this paper a detailed optimization of design parameters of heat wheels is performed in order to maximize sensible effectiveness and to minimize pressure drop. The analysis is carried out through a one dimensional lumped parameters heat wheel model, which solves heat and mass transfer equations, and through appropriate correlations to estimate pressure drop. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data of a heat wheel tested in specific facilities, and good agreement is attained. The device optimization is performed through the variation of main design parameters, such as heat wheel length, channel base, height and thickness and for different operating conditions, namely the air face velocity and the revolution speed. It is shown that the best configurations are achieved with small channel thickness and, depending on the required sensible effectiveness, with appropriate values of wheel length and channel base and height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Power Transformer Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion Systems for Low Voltage Ride-through Capability Enhancement of Directly Driven Wind Turbines with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (D-PMSGs)
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7330-7347; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117330
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4095 | PDF Full-text (1180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT) incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs). The [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the use of an Electronic Power Transformer (EPT) incorporated with an energy storage system to smooth the wind power fluctuations and enhance the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of directly driven wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (D-PMSGs). The decoupled control schemes of the system, including the grid side converter control scheme, generator side converter control scheme and the control scheme of the energy storage system, are presented in detail. Under normal operating conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the high frequency component of the D-PMSG output power to smooth the wind power fluctuations. Under grid fault conditions, the energy storage system absorbs the redundant power, which could not be transferred to the grid by the EPT, to help the D-PMSG to ride through low voltage conditions. This coordinated control strategy is validated by simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink. With the proposed control strategy, the output wind power quality is improved and the D-PMSG can ride through severe grid fault conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Energy-Efficient Operation Methodology for Metro Systems Based on a Real Case of Shanghai Metro Line One
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7305-7329; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117305
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 1 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2574 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metro systems are one of the most important transportation systems in people’s lives. Due to the huge amount of energy it consumes every day, highly-efficient operation of a metro system will lead to significant energy savings. In this paper, a new integrated Energy-efficient [...] Read more.
Metro systems are one of the most important transportation systems in people’s lives. Due to the huge amount of energy it consumes every day, highly-efficient operation of a metro system will lead to significant energy savings. In this paper, a new integrated Energy-efficient Operation Methodology (EOM) for metro systems is proposed and validated. Compared with other energy saving methods, EOM does not incur additional cost. In addition, it provides solutions to the frequent disturbance problems in the metro systems. EOM can be divided into two parts: Timetable Optimization (TO) and Compensational Driving Strategy Algorithm (CDSA). First, to get a basic energy-saving effect, a genetic algorithm is used to modify the dwell time of each stop to obtain the most optimal energy-efficient timetable. Then, in order to save additional energy when disturbances happen, a novel CDSA algorithm is formulated and proposed based on the foregoing method. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the energy-savings possible with EOM, a real case of Shanghai Metro Line One (SMLO) is studied, where EOM was applied. The result shows that a significant amount of energy can be saved by using EOM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7282-7304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117282
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 5 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2757 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to generate the [...] Read more.
To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7266-7281; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117266
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2587 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection [...] Read more.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC) to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network-Based Temperature Control for Optimum Operation of Building Envelopes
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7245-7265; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117245
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2737 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims at developing an indoor temperature control method that could provide comfortable thermal conditions by integrating heating system control and the opening conditions of building envelopes. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based temperature control logic was developed for the control of heating systems [...] Read more.
This study aims at developing an indoor temperature control method that could provide comfortable thermal conditions by integrating heating system control and the opening conditions of building envelopes. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based temperature control logic was developed for the control of heating systems and openings at the building envelopes in a predictive and adaptive manner. Numerical comparative performance tests for the ANN-based temperature control logic and conventional non-ANN-based counterpart were conducted for single skin enveloped and double skin enveloped buildings after the simulation program was validated by comparing the simulation and the field measurement results. Analysis results revealed that the ANN-based control logic improved the indoor temperature environment with an increased comfortable temperature period and decreased overshoot and undershoot of temperatures outside of the operating range. The proposed logic did not show significant superiority in energy efficiency over the conventional logic. The ANN-based temperature control logic was able to maintain the indoor temperature more comfortably and with more stability within the operating range due to the predictive and adaptive features of ANN models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Naturally-Forced Slug Flow Expander for Application in a Waste-Heat Recovery Cycle
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7223-7244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117223
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2187 | PDF Full-text (5448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates a slug-flow expander (SFE) for conversion of high-pressure gas/vapor into kinetic energy of liquid slugs. The energy transfer from high-pressure to kinetic energy is quantified using thrust plate measurements. Non-dimensional thrust data is used to quantify performance by normalizing measured [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a slug-flow expander (SFE) for conversion of high-pressure gas/vapor into kinetic energy of liquid slugs. The energy transfer from high-pressure to kinetic energy is quantified using thrust plate measurements. Non-dimensional thrust data is used to quantify performance by normalizing measured thrust by thrust for the same water flow rate at zero air flow rate. A total of 13 expander configurations are investigated and geometries with the shortest cavity length and the smallest exit diameter are found to result in the largest non-dimensional thrust increase. Results show that thrust augmentation increases with the initiation of slug flow in the SFE. The analysis performed on the normalized thrust readings suggested that as the water and air flow were increased to critical conditions, the liquid slugs produced by the SFE augmented the thrust measurements. The final performance evaluation was based on linear regression of the normalized thrust measurements where slug flow was generated for each SFE architecture. Greater magnitudes of the slope from the linear regression indicated the propensity of the SFE to augment thrust. This analysis confirmed that for the SFE configurations over the range of values investigated, the SFE increased thrust up to three times its original value at no air flow. Given the inherent multiphase nature of the slug-flow expander, application to systems involving expansion of wetting fluids (water as part of a waste-heat recovery system) or air with water droplet formation (as part of a compressed-air energy storage system) could be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery—Strategy and Practice)
Open AccessReview
Macroalgae-Derived Biofuel: A Review of Methods of Energy Extraction from Seaweed Biomass
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7194-7222; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7117194
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 5988 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from [...] Read more.
The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from microalgae rather than from macroalgae. This article briefly reviews the methods by which useful energy may be extracted from macroalgae biomass including: direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, trans-esterification to biodiesel, hydrothermal liquefaction, fermentation to bioethanol, fermentation to biobutanol and anaerobic digestion, and explores technical and engineering difficulties that remain to be resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Based Technologies)
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