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Article

Examining the Performance of Implantable-Grade Lithium-Ion Cells after Overdischarge and Thermally Accelerated Aging

Exponent, Inc., 1075 Worcester St., Natick, MA 01760, USA
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Academic Editor: Michael Knapp
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041405
Received: 20 January 2022 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 10 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Batteries, Fuel Cells and Supercapacitors Technologies)
For implanted medical devices containing rechargeable batteries, maximizing battery lifetime is paramount as surgery is required for battery replacement. In non-life-sustaining applications (e.g., spinal cord stimulators or sacral nerve modulation), these implants may be left unused and unmaintained for extended periods, according to patient preference or in the case of unexpected life events. In this study, we examine the performance of two commercial lithium-ion cells intended for implantable neurostimulators (using lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and graphite as the negative electrode) when subjected to repeated deep overdischarge and to aging at a high state of charge (SOC). The graphite-based cells exhibited significant performance decline and swelling after overdischarge and became unable to store a charge after 42 days at 0 V. In contrast, the LTO-based cells exhibited minimal changes in performance even after 84 days (the length of the study) at 0 V. When subjected to an accelerated aging protocol at 100% SOC, the graphite-based cells were found to age more rapidly than the LTO cells, which exhibited minimal aging over the course of the study period. These results show that practical LTO-based lithium-ion cells are much more tolerant of abuse as a result of neglect and misuse and are worth considering for use in high-value applications where battery replacement is difficult or impossible. View Full-Text
Keywords: implantable batteries; lithium titanium oxide; overdischarge; accelerated aging; spinal cord stimulation; sacral nerve stimulation implantable batteries; lithium titanium oxide; overdischarge; accelerated aging; spinal cord stimulation; sacral nerve stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harding, J.R.; Han, B.; Madden, S.B.; Horn, Q.C. Examining the Performance of Implantable-Grade Lithium-Ion Cells after Overdischarge and Thermally Accelerated Aging. Energies 2022, 15, 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041405

AMA Style

Harding JR, Han B, Madden SB, Horn QC. Examining the Performance of Implantable-Grade Lithium-Ion Cells after Overdischarge and Thermally Accelerated Aging. Energies. 2022; 15(4):1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harding, Jonathon R., Binghong Han, Samuel B. Madden, and Quinn C. Horn. 2022. "Examining the Performance of Implantable-Grade Lithium-Ion Cells after Overdischarge and Thermally Accelerated Aging" Energies 15, no. 4: 1405. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041405

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