Warm plasma techniques are considered a promising method of tar removal in biomass-derived syngas. The fate of another problematic syngas impurity—hydrogen sulfide—is studied in this work. It is revealed that processing simulated syngas with a microwave plasma results in hydrogen sulfide conversion. For different gas flow rates (20–40 NLPM) and hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 250 ppm to 750 ppm, the conversion rate varies from ca. 26% to 45%. The main sulfur-containing products are carbon disulfide (ca. 30% of total sulfur) and carbonyl sulfide (ca. 8% of total sulfur). Besides them, significantly smaller quantities of sulfates and benzothiophene are also detected. The main components of syngas have a tremendous impact on the fate of hydrogen sulfide. While the presence of carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and tar surrogate (toluene) leads to the formation of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and benzothiophene, respectively, the abundance of hydrogen results in the recreation of hydrogen sulfide. Consequently, the presence of hydrogen in the simulated syngas is the main factor that determines the low conversion rate of hydrogen sulfide. Conversion of hydrogen sulfide into various sulfur compounds might be problematic in the context of syngas purification and the application of the right technique for sulfur removal.
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